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36 Part II: Characteristics of the U.S. Ferry System The shoreside platform may be a dock or a barge, the latter of which allows a constant height between the vessel and loading platform. The use of various gangway technologies can affect the time it takes to emplace and remove the gangway. Gangway technologies include manual placement with a hand winch and mechanical placement with electric, hydraulic, and bow loading. The latter technology offers the advantage of faster mooring and loading at properly configured terminals. These mooring and gangway procedures may have different security implications. For example, if it takes longer to moor and place a gangway (e.g., as a result of electrical power loss), embarking and debarking passengers will be required to remain in a confined area for a longer time, thereby extending the period that these areas retain high population densities. When the relative vulner- ability of the gangway is high, increases in monitoring, access control, and restricted areas may be considered. 3.2 Fare Collection, Waiting Areas, and Vessel Loading Methods for passenger fare collection vary among ferry terminals. One method is for boarding passengers to pay their fares at ticket windows or ticket vending machines prior to entering the platform area.Another method is to collect fares by a combination of an on-board cashier (for those paying cash), and an on-board ticket-validating machine (for those holding multiple-ride tickets and passes). There may be enclosed waiting areas for passengers to congregate prior to boarding. Ferry terminals that have waiting areas have the additional security concerns that are associated with these areas. Monitoring for unattended bags and packages are among the security needs for these areas. The basic layout for loading passengers at terminals follows a general model where walkways lead to the stable approach (landside), the passenger loading platform (dock) is connected to the stable approach (either by mooring or anchorage), and a gangway is deployed to bridge the span from the passenger-loading platform to the vessel. It is often natural for passenger-loading platforms to rise and drop with changing water or tidal levels. Where water levels are more stable, gangways may be deployed from the stable approach to the vessel. On the busiest ferry routes, a terminal building may have multiple boarding levels with multiple gangways deployed. Cargo handling is identified in 33 CFR 105 as a particular process for which security measures must be developed. For ferry operations that accommodate vehicles, the vehicle-loading facility often accounts for a major portion of a facility's overall footprint. The staging lot design for embarking passengers' vehicles depends on a number of factors, such as the vessel auto-deck capacity and the loading process. While some staging areas are actually part of the road serviced by the ferry system, in other cases, a roadside pull-off has been added to the highway shoulder so that vehicular traffic can queue to await loading. The order of vehicle loading is often carefully managed to maintain vessel balance. In some cases, vehicles are only loaded and unloaded by staff. The unloading process for ferry vessels is generally more straightforward and less time con- suming than loading. Many North American auto-ferry operators request that auto-passengers on long-distance routes make reservations and/or arrive 30 minutes to 3 hours prior to departure. The suggested arrival time is a function of the anticipated demand and may include time for security and/or hazardous material checks. For services between Canada and the United States, the advance time may also include checks by federal authorities such as the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Service. The number of terminals that serve ferry routes with high-passenger boardings (Table 6) can be used as an indicator of the number of ferry terminals that process large numbers of people.