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Chapter 3: USFS Terminal and Area Characteristics 37 Table 6. Number of terminals with high annual passenger boardings. Number of Annual Passenger Boardings Terminals 500,000 to 999,999 26 1,000,000 to 1,999,999 27 2,000,000 to 4,999,999 13 5,000,000 to 9,999,999 5 10,000,000 or more 2 TOTAL 73 Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Intermodal and Statewide Programs Division, National Ferry Study, National Ferry Database, December 2000. Terminals that process high numbers of passengers generally present greater relative risks than terminals that process fewer passengers. High-volume terminals also present a greater challenge with respect to the timely screening of passengers and cargo. 3.3 Waterway Area Effects The extent and type of water traffic is among the considerations in the development of ASPs. Water traffic affects the extent and type of waterway monitoring that may be employed and the designation of vessel traffic service (VTS) areas (described in Section 4.3.1). Harbor traffic can also impact ferry vessel movements. Small pleasure crafts and windsurfers can cause delays to ferries, particularly on weekends. These conditions may result in congestion, which is synonymous with a higher-risk environment, forcing vessels to reduce travel speeds and perhaps post additional lookout watches on deck. In some cases, local authorities increase the burden by designating specific directions of travel. This means that vessels traveling in a certain direction must yield to vessels traveling in the other direction. Each of these delays is considered part of a vessel's travel time to its destination. The interrelationship between travel time and security is that the longer a vessel is on the water, the more time the crew would have to handle a security incident away from immediate response of local emergency responders. 3.4 Ownership/Operation A mix of private and public owners and operators run and maintain the USFS. Rules and reg- ulations that apply to ferries make no distinction in ownership, however. Because publicly owned ferry systems are generally larger than private systems, size-based regulations affect more publicly owned services. Ownership may also affect financing for implementation of security requirements. For publicly owned vessels and facilities, the title for the vessel or for the terminal is held by a fed- eral, state, county, town, or other local government. For privately owned vessels or facilities, the title for the vessel or terminal is held by one or more private entities. Regardless of the ownership, operation of the ferry system may be contracted to either a government or private entity. Oftentimes, systems that are both privately owned and operated are under state public utility commission (PUC) oversight. As shown in Table 7, 68 million passengers, or 65% of the passengers, and 30 million vehicles, or 84% of the vehicles transported annually by ferry, travel on publicly owned and publicly operated

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38 Part II: Characteristics of the U.S. Ferry System Table 7. U.S. ferry operations by type of ownership and passenger/ vehicle volume. Annual Number of Type of Ownership Passengers Vehicles Operations (millions) (millions) Publicly Owned/Publicly Operated 63 68 30.0 Publicly Owned/Privately Operated 17 3 0.5 Privately Owned/Publicly Operated (under contract) 13 3 0.2 Privately Owned/Privately Operated 115 30 5.0 Source: TCRP Report 100: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd Edition, Transportation Research Board, 2004. systems. However, these public systems make up only 30%, or 63, of the total number of U.S. ferry operations. Privately owned and operated systems carry 30 million passengers, or 29% of the passengers, and 5 million vehicles, or 14% of the vehicles that travel by ferry, while mixtures of public and private ownership and operation carry just 6% of the passengers, and 2% of the vehi- cles transported by ferry.