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40 Part II: Characteristics of the U.S. Ferry System Ship security plan, Port facility security plan, Ship security officer, Company security officer, Port facility security officer, Ship alarms, and Shipboard AISs. As described in the following sections, the ISPS code is implemented in the United States by a concurrently developed congressional act and its ensuing regulations. 4.2 National Vessel and Terminal Security Regulations and Guidance A near-equivalent of the ISPS code was enacted in the United States when the U.S. Congress passed the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) in 2002, which is reenacted every 2 years to facilitate timely amendments. The MTSA is implemented by the U.S. Coast Guard, which pub- lishes its regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Guidance for meeting Coast Guard regulations is published as Maritime Security (MARSEC) directives, and Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars (NVICs). Each of these publication types is described below, followed by a brief summary of references for development of U.S. Coast Guardapproved security plans. 4.2.1 The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) In 2003, the U.S. Coast Guard published new security plans and security officer regulations in 33 CFR Parts 101 to 106. All regulations published in the CFR are initially published in the Fed- eral Register. The preambles of the July 1, 2003, and October 22, 2003, Federal Register sections that address 33 CFR contain information that is not in the body of the regulatory text. This infor- mation provides further background and explains the new regulation's purpose, thereby maybe assisting in interpretation of the regulations. Overall security is achieved by applying compartmentalized security processes to terminal and vessel segments. All operations prior to boarding are the responsibility of the facility security offi- cer. Once passengers are on a vessel, they become the responsibility of the vessel security officer and the captain. In addition to requiring approved vessel and facility security plans that are based on security assessments, 33 CFR 104 and 105 call for Designation of facility and vessel security officers, Training of personnel on the security plan, Annual security exercises and security drills, Records of security system and equipment maintenance per manufacturer recommendations, Security measures that are scalable to MARSEC levels, Declarations of security that delineate responsibilities during vessel-to-facility interfaces, and Compliance with previously existing regulations. MARSEC levels are discussed in greater detail in Appendix B. Preexisting security regulations that apply to the USFS are found in 33 CFR 26, 162, and 164 (which deal with AIS, addressed in Section 4.3.2 below); 33 CFR 161 (which deals with VTS, addressed in Section 4.3.1 below); 33 CFR 165 (which deals with regulated navigation and limited access areas);