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42 Part II: Characteristics of the U.S. Ferry System NVICs address a wide variety of subjects, including vessel construction features, mariner training and licensing requirements, inspection methods and testing techniques, safety and secu- rity procedures, requirements for certain Coast Guard regulatory processes, manning require- ments, equipment approval methods, and special hazards. NVICs are numbered consecutively by year. For example, NVIC 04-03 would be the fourth NVIC issued in 2003. Table A2 in Appen- dix A summarizes security-related NVICs that may affect the USFS. 4.2.4 References for the Development of a U.S. Coast GuardApproved Security Plan For the development of vessel security plans, NVIC 04-03 should be considered, along with 33 CFR 101 and 104, and the MARSEC directives for CFR 101 and 104. For the development of facility security plans, NVIC 03-03 should be considered, along with 33 CFR 101 and 105 and the MARSEC directives for CFR 101 and 105. In addition, as mentioned above, the preamble of the July 1, 2003, and October 22, 2003, Federal Register may be helpful and is recommended by various organizations (e.g., the American Association of Port Authorities) to be considered dur- ing security plan development. Vessels and facilities that can adopt an approved association secu- rity plan under the alternative security program (ASP) allowance of 33 CFR 104 and 105 may have reduced need for these references, but prudence would suggest knowledge of their contents because even within an ASP, security plans must be individualized for each vessel and facility. All vessels and facilities that are required to either develop approved security plans or an ASP must first conduct vulnerability assessments. Guidance for these assessments are provided in the preamble to the July 1, 2003, and October 22, 2003, Federal Register; in NVIC 10-02; and in doc- uments by various associations, such as the Passenger Vessel Association's "Risk Guide." The Trans- portation Security Administration (TSA) has also developed a tool for conducting maritime vulnerability assessments, the Vulnerability Identification Self-Assessment Tool (VISAT) for mar- itime (previously known as the TSA Maritime Self-Assessment Module, or TMSARM). This may be obtained at the request of a company, vessel, or facility security officer at http://www.tsa.gov/ public/display?content=09000519800d6843. The approved security plan must address each of the identified vulnerability areas. An annual audit must also be performed to establish that protective measures are working and to identify and mitigate any new vulnerabilities. Any new counter- measures taken must be amended to the existing security plan, and the COTP must be notified of these changes. 4.3 Safety Regulations with Security Implications The following sections describe vessel traffic services (VTSs) and automatic information systems (AISs). AISs are based on newer technology than was initially employed in VTS areas. AISs are expected to be ultimately implemented throughout all waterways. Both of the sections below are condensed from information on the U.S. Coast Guard websites http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/mwv/ vts/vts_home.htm (for VTS) and http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/enav/ais/default.htm (for AIS). 4.3.1 Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) VTS provides active monitoring, information services, traffic organization, and navigational assistance for vessels in designated areas, similar to air traffic control. U.S. Coast Guard VTS reg- ulations are in 33 CFR 161. There are two main types of VTS, surveilled and non-surveilled. Sur- veilled systems consist of one or more land-based sensors (i.e., radar, AIS, and closed-circuit television sites) that output their signals to a central location where operators monitor and man-