Click for next page ( 10


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 9
9 In addition, industry data were used to identify and create tinental United States and are represented year 2002 dollars. indices for geographic and temporal variations in both con- Indexes are provided to adjust for inflation to the project struction and real estate costs: Engineering News Record build year and regional variations in construction costs. As (ENR) for construction cost information (3) and U.S. Depart- projects advance from early planning into design, project ment of Labor for consumer price index (4). specifications will become more precise and design engineers' The methodologies used for developing each individual estimates will provide a more reliable estimate of construc- unit cost are described in the following section. tion costs. Accordingly, this application includes substantial contingencies to account for both the preliminary nature of the cost estimates and the absence of detailed project speci- Data Types fications. Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4 display the cost model Available information on the costs of bicycle facilities tables. These spreadsheets show the cost models interface varies considerably. In most instances, data were obtained with the user. The web page prompt instructs the user to des- from cost estimates of individual projects and contractors' ignate the broad category of facility desired: bid prices. In a few cases, data were gleaned from completed construction projects. On-Street Facility Lane with Parking On-Street Facility Lane without Parking Completed Projects. Several cost estimates were obtained Off-Street Facility from completed projects, particularly rail trails and highway Bicycle-Related Equipment (Cost estimate only) construction projects. Although this data provides the most reliable overall cost information, it generally was not avail- able in sufficient detail to develop unit costs. For example, Geography the Rails to Trails Conservancy provides a comprehensive database of trails built in the last 20 years throughout the Cost values for each element were gathered from a num- United States. Available information includes trail costs, ber of sources around the country. To normalize each cost length, and year constructed. However, the database did not element to a national level, a construction cost index by state provide information about unique features of a given project or region was developed. The index is the Construction Cost such as number of bridges, soil conditions, and drainage. Index as published in the Engineering News Record (ENR), June 30, 2003. This ENR index was chosen because it iden- Agency Estimates. Several state DOTs developed unit tifies regional construction costs relative to the national base cost estimates based on data that they have collected over of 1.00. The index identifies 36 major construction markets time. Specifically, the states of Florida, Iowa, and Vermont throughout the country. All major cities are not listed, nor are developed cost estimate reports that outline unit costs, as well all states represented. Table 5 shows the geographic index as provide project level costs (e.g., bicycle trails per mile). that was used to control for regional differences in the con- struction costs. Bid Prices. Bid prices were also reviewed to identify For ease of use, the team developed an index for each state unit costs. Unit bid prices can sometimes vary from actual based on the ENR index. Additionally, in states with signif- cost when contractors include an allowance in the bid price icant variance in construction costs for urban centers, an for uncertainty on actual quantities needed to complete the index for those urban areas was developed. In cities that have construction. high labor and or material costs, specifically New York City, Boston, Philadelphia, and the Bay Area in California, sepa- rate rates were developed. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING COSTS The 36 construction markets were mapped and then abut- ting states/regions with similar characteristics were assigned This section describes an interactive online tool for trans- to similar values. All states and select regions were assigned portation planners to develop preliminary cost estimates for a construction value. (See the chart below for the Normal- new bicycle facilities. The tool is based on a database built of ized Index.) unit cost and cost indices. Users are prompted to enter several The geographic index was applied to selected unit costs to characteristics about the size and type of a proposed facility normalize base values geographically. When the model user in three or four modules. The user is then provided with a pre- enters a project location (city and state) into the cost model, liminary cost estimate for the proposed bicycle facility. the model applies the geographic index to the construction The cost model provides a comprehensive estimate of cap- cost to reflect costs for that state or urban area. ital costs including construction, procurement and installa- No data were available for Alaska or Hawaii. The user may tion of equipment, design, and project administration costs. use the default national values, though it is suspected that Costs are based on standard facilities constructed in the con- construction costs in both states may be higher than average

OCR for page 9
10 TABLE 2 Cost descriptions and instructions ITEM DESCRIPTION INSTRUCTIONS City Enter city name from list in Downtown Table if applicable State Code Postal Code for state in which project is located with 4 exceptions: Boston area-MAB, Phil-PAP,NYCity-NYC;San Fran-CAS Build Year Projected mid-year of construction 1.00 Roadway Construction 1.10 Earthwork 1.11 Clearing and Grubbing Clearing and grubbing is calculated by acre. Use the total acreage of the project that will be cleared of native vegetation 1.12 Excavation Unit cost is proviided in cubic yards. Estimate the total volume of excavation for specific project conditions. 1.13 Grading Based on grading costs for a path with an assumed width of 10' 1.14 Pavement Removal Unit price is based on removal of a cubic yard of either portland cement or bituminous concrete pavement. 1.15 Curb/Gutter Removal Removal of existing curbs - Earthwork Contingency Contingency for earthwork is variable. Use default or input best guess based on specifics of the project. 1.20 Pavement Identify the surface treatment. For full depth construction, aggregate base is necessary. Default depth of pavement is ____. Default depth of base is ____ 1.21 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Assumes a 5 inch pavement depth 1.22 Bituminous Concrete Pavement Assumes a 3 inch pavement depth 1.23 Crushed Stone Surface Assumes a 3 inch stone surface depth 1.24 Aggregate Base Assumes a 4 inch base. Use if full depth pavement construction. 1.25 Curbing Unit cost is median cost of cast-in-place concrete or granite curb. Concrete curbs may vary due to project size. Roadway projects will have smaller unit cost 1.26 Curb Ramps Cost to install a single curb ramp. Includes removal of existing concrete sidewalk and replacing with a ramp. 1.30 Drainage 1.31 Storm Drains Drainage provided 1.40 Pavement Markings Markings needed vary by location, geometrics, sight distance, and local requirements. Consult AASHTO and MUTCD for guidelines. 1.41 Bicycle Arrow Directional arrow as defined by AASHTO and MUTCD. Used in tandem with bicycle symbol. Usually, 2/bike lane/intersection. 1.42 Bicycle Symbol Bicycle Symbol as defined by AASHTO and MUTCD. Used in tandem with bicycle arrow. Usually, 2/bike lane/intersection. 1.43 Bicycle Box (colored pavement) Colored box used as needed to increase visability. Unit cost for Thermoplastic application. Usually 2 per lane per intersection. 1.44 Lane Striping Striping for a bike lane (one side) or trail centerline. Assumes a 4" wide solid line. 1.45 Shared Lane Marking (sharrow) No default cost provided for a sharrow. Assuming the cost of a bicycle symbol. Enter in local cost if known. 1.50 Landscaping Landscaping costs are variable by terrain, adjacent land use, and existing conditions. 1.51 Landscaping - Grass Unit cost is for basic seeding and mulching. Input higher estimated cost for other landscaping such as trees, sod, or furniture. 1.52 Landscaping - Trail Unit cost assumes a "complete" landscaping effort including grading, grass, plantings, trees, etc as required. 1.53 Root Dams Cost of root dam to protect tree roots from buckling pavement. Assume 18" deep plastic sheeting 2.00 Structures 2.10 Bridge Bridge costs are highly variable, especially the abutments. Unit costs for pre-fab steel structures are relatively constant. 2.12 Bridge Deck (concrete or steel) Unit cost for the bridge structure, not including abutments. Bridge structure may be concrete or steel. Trail bridges are often prefabricated. 2.13 Abutments Highly variable. Rule of thumb provided. Best to use a project specific cost if available. Unit cost is for 2 abutments or for 1 bridge. - Bridge Contingency 2.20 Underpass 2.21 Underpass Cost of constructing an underpass of a roadway to accommodate bicycles. - Construction Estimate - Location Index Enter the location based on the Location Chart - Construction Contingency TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST 3.00 Equipment 3.10 Signs Sign content and frequency vary by project, by state, and region. 3.12 Sign with Post Unit cost includes sign, post, and installation for a bike lane sign or bicycle route sign (12' x 18'). Use actual local cost if available. 3.20 Traffic Signals 3.21 Bicycle Signal Unit cost for a bicycle or pedestrian signal 3.22 Pedestrian Signal Activation - 4 Way Cost for installation of a 4-way pedestrian/bicycle activated signal to an existing signalized intersection 3.23 Pedestrian Signal Activation - 2 Way Cost for installation of a 2-way pedestrian/bicycle activated signal to an existing signalized intersection 3.24 Loop Detector Cost of installation of a loop detector in the pavement to detect bicycles 3.30 Barriers 3.31 Gates Gate for a trail or other purpose. Use local cost if available 3.32 Trail Bollards Unit cost provided for single trail bollard. 3.33 Fencing Materials $43,000/mile. Installation assumed at $48,000. Highly variable. Use local cost if available. 3.40 Parking 3.41 Bicycle Rack (Inverted U, 2 bicycles) Single rack assumes the use of an inverted "U", a standard rack type. Unique designs may have a higher cost. 3.42 Bicycle Rack (Coathanger or similar, 6 bicycles) Racks designed to hold multiple bicycles. Can be customized to the desired length/capacity. "Coathanger" style racks are a good acceptable example. 3.43 Bicycle Locker (2 bicycles) Assumes each locker unit holds two bicycles. Other designs are commercially available. 3.44 Bike Station No default cost provided. Enter the estimated cost if known. 3.50 Conveyance 3.51 Bus Rack Cost is the average cost from Sportworks, the primary supplier of bus racks in the US. High quantity 3.52 Interior Train Rack No default cost provided. Enter the estimated cost if known. 3.60 Lighting 3.61 Street Lights Street Light purchase and installation 3.70 Security 3.71 Emergency Call Boxes Unit cost for a call box is provided. Call box is typical of what would be found on a road shoulder or sidewalk for emergency use. 3.72 Security Cameras Unit cost for a security camera is an estimate and will vary based on location, means of data transimission, and hardware needs. Use local cost if known. TOTAL EQUIPMENT COST 4.00 Real Estate 4.01 Rural/Undeveloped If the project is located in an undeveloped or rural area, enter city name from drop-down menu, if applicable 4.02 Suburban/Single Family Residential If the project is located in a primarily single family residential area, enter the value from the Residential Chart 4.03 Urban/High Density Residential If the project is located in a high density residential area, enter the value from the Urban Chart 4.04 Urban CBD If the project is located in the downtown area of a city on the Downtown Chart, enter the value in the 2002 Rate column - Real Estate Contingency TOTAL REAL ESTATE COST - Administration (Construction) - Planning (Construction) - Design/Engineering - Field Inspection SUBTOTAL PROJECT COST - Project Contingency Overall project contingency. TOTAL BASE YEAR CAPITAL COST Default base year is 2002. Unit prices reflect 2002 costs. TOTAL BUILD YEAR CAPITAL COST The build year is the midpoint of construction period of the project. 5.00 Operations and Maintenance 5.10 Maintenance Enter in mileage of trail or road maintenance. Output will be the cost of maintenance per year TOTAL OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE

OCR for page 9
11 TABLE 3 Cost worksheet, part 1 Input English Units Itemized COSTS Length Depth BASE YR ITEM DESCRIPTION Units Width (Feet) UNIT (Feet) (Inches) (2002) City Boston State Code MAB Build Year 2002 1.00 Roadway Construction 1.10 Earthwork 1.11 Clearing and Grubbing $ 1,703 acre $ - 1.12 Excavation 6 $ 15 cu yd $ - 1.13 Grading $ 2,108 acre $ - 1.14 Pavement Removal $ 14 cu yd $ - 1.15 Curb/Gutter Removal $ 4 l ft $ - - Earthwork Contingency 10% $ - 1.20 Pavement 1.21 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 5 $ 142 cu yd $ - 1.22 Bituminous Concrete Pavement 3 $ 135 cu yd $ - 1.23 Crushed Stone Surface 3 $ 37 cu yd $ - 1.24 Aggregate Base 4 $ 28 cu yd $ - 1.25 Curbing $ 22 l ft $ - 1.26 Curb Ramps $ 1,068 each $ - 1.30 Drainage 1.31 Storm Drains $ 113 l ft $ - 1.40 Pavement Markings 1.41 Bicycle Arrow $ 53 each $ - 1.42 Bicycle Symbol $ 71 each $ - 1.43 Bicycle Box (colored pavement) $ 9 sqft $ - 1.44 Lane Striping $ 3,266 mile $ - 1.45 Shared Lane Marking (sharrow) $ 71 each $ - 1.50 Landscaping 1.51 Landscaping - Grass $ 1,363 acre $ - 1.52 Landscaping - Trail $ 27,188 mile $ - 1.53 Root Dams $ 11 l ft $ - 2.00 Structures 2.10 Bridge 2.12 Bridge Deck (concrete or steel) 16 $ 91 sqft $ - 2.13 Abutments $ 17,273 each $ - - Bridge Contingency 10% $ - 2.20 Underpass 2.21 Underpass $ 3,840 l ft $ - - Construction Estimate $ - - Location Index 125% $ - - Construction Contingency 10% $ - TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST $ - because of their remote locations. The user is encouraged to The growth function predicts the exponential growth by enter construction factors if known. using the existing data. The projected growth rates were then used to predict construction and real estate costs up to the Inflation year 2012 based on the midpoint of construction entered by the user. The team researched cost values for each cost element. The user is then asked to provide more specifics on facility One or more cost values were obtained for each element. The type (those selecting on-street facilities will be asked to team chose the cost from the source determined to be the most choose bicycle lanes or paved shoulders, for example, while reliable, representative, or current. those choosing equipment would see bus racks and bicycle The Producer Price Index for highway and street construc- lockers as options). Each of these facility types, in turn, trig- tion was used to adjust construction costs to the base year. The gers additional user prompts on site characteristics (terrain, Consumer Price Index for housing was used for real estate current land ownership, etc.) and specifications (width, length, costs. Both indexes are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor number of signs). The database has been set up to be as com- Statistics. Data for the years 19872003 were collected for prehensive as possible given available cost data, while being both indexes. sufficiently simple to allow planners to generate preliminary All construction values were normalized to a base year of cost estimates quickly without exhaustive research into spe- 2002. Inflation factors were developed to convert unit costs cific project components at an early stage of planning. from 2002 levels to the build year. Growth rates for both the The final column in the interface section of the spread- construction and real estate costs were projected from the sheet provides preliminary estimates of capital costs for spe- 19872003 data by the Microsoft Excel growth function. cific facility types. The resultant cost estimate along with the

OCR for page 9
12 TABLE 4 Cost worksheet, part 2 3.00 Equipment 3.10 Signs 3.12 Sign with Post $ 200 each $ - 3.20 Traffic Signals 3.21 Bicycle Signal $ 10,000 each $ - 3.22 Pedestrian Signal Activation - 4 Way $ 3,900 each $ - 3.23 Pedestrian Signal Activation - 2 Way $ 1,900 each $ - 3.24 Loop Detector $ 1,500 each $ - 3.30 Barriers 3.31 Gates $ 1,500 each $ - 3.32 Trail Bollards $ 130 each $ - 3.33 Fencing $ 13 l ft $ - 3.40 Parking 3.41 Bicycle Rack (Inverted U, 2 bicycles) $ 190 each $ - 3.42 Bicycle Rack (Coathanger or similar, 6 bicycles) $ 65 per bike $ - 3.43 Bicycle Locker (2 bicycles) $ 1,000 each $ - 3.44 Bike Station $ 200,000 each $ - 3.50 Conveyance 3.51 Bus Rack $ 570 each $ - 3.52 Interior Train Rack $ - each $ - 3.60 Lighting 3.61 Street Lights $ 3,640 each $ - 3.70 Security 3.71 Emergency Call Boxes $ 5,590 each $ - 3.72 Security Cameras $ 7,500 each $ - TOTAL EQUIPMENT COST $ - 4.00 Real Estate 4.01 Rural/Undeveloped $ 9,234 acre $ - 4.02 Suburban/Single Family Residential $ 65,805 acre $ - 4.03 Urban/High Density Residential $ 23 sqft $ - 4.04 Urban CBD $ 56 sqft $ - - Real Estate Contingency 20% $ - TOTAL REAL ESTATE COST $ - - Administration (Construction) 6% $ - - Planning (Construction) 2% $ - - Design/Engineering 10% $ - - Field Inspection 2% $ - SUBTOTAL PROJECT COST $ - - Project Contingency 30% $ - TOTAL BASE YEAR CAPITAL COST 1.00 2002 $ - TOTAL BUILD YEAR CAPITAL COST 100% 2002 $ - 5.00 Operations and Maintenance 5.10 Maintenance 0 $ 6,500 mile/yr $ - TOTAL OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE $ - formula is presented on the final module. The formulas con- user can provide more accurate land cost information for the sist of unit cost figures (such as paving per cubic yard and facility site than the default value. land cost per acre), quantities and dimensions (length, width, The following text, which corresponds to Tables 14, number) as well as indices to adjust to regional or sub- describes each cost component and the justification of the regional (urban/suburban/rural) markets. default value (indicated by "*" in the following subsections). A draft catalog of these unit costs and other input is included in the box in the upper right corner of the spread- sheet. Some of these values (e.g., regional cost indices) are 1.00 Roadway Construction included in the cost database; others (e.g., project specifica- tions and location) are input by users as they respond to 1.10 Earthwork prompts. In addition to the cost estimate, the final screen also allows users to access information on the source of all values 1.11 Clearing and Grubbing. The Iowa DOT's Iowa (i.e., ENR regional construction cost indices). All basic Trails 2000 report was the only source that identified a spe- inputs to the cost computation are default values that can be cific cost for the clearing and grubbing component of trail adjusted according to user specifications. For example, the construction. Estimated at $2,000 per acre, this figure was

OCR for page 9
13 adjusted to $1,703* to reflect construction costs in 2002 in Ohio, the baseline location for regional variations in con- TABLE 5 Normalized index by state or region struction costs (5). Normalized Index by State or Region 1.12 Excavation. An Internet search was conducted to State Location Index AK All identify estimated excavation costs. The expectation was that AL All 0.90 information would not be available specifically for bike trail AR All 0.90 projects. However, general excavation costs for roadway pro- AZ All 1.00 jects were sought to approximate bike trail excavation costs, CA Except Bay Area 1.10 as well as a bike lane's share of roadway excavation costs. A CAS Bay Area 1.40 CO All 1.00 review of several websites resulted in a range of excavation CT All 1.15 costs, typically provided in cost per cubic yard. The Contra DC All 1.05 Costa Bicycle Pedestrian plan uses a wide range of $10$50 DE All 1.05 per cubic yard for excavation for a shared use pathway (6). FL All 0.90 Advanced Drainage Systems, the largest manufacturer of GA All 0.95 HI All drainage equipment, identified $5 to $15* per cubic yard as IA All 1.15 the national standard range for excavation costs (7). ID All 0.95 Because this factor is based on volume rather than facility IL All 1.20 length, its use will require some understanding of excava- IN All 1.00 tion needs for the specific bike facility. KS All 0.90 KY All 0.95 LA All 0.90 MA Western 1.10 1.13 Grading. Trail grading estimates were also taken MAB Eastern 1.25 from the Iowa Trails 2000 report with the same adjust- MD All 1.05 ments made for regional differences and cost escalation to ME All 1.10 arrive at $2,555* per trail mi (5). The Iowa report estimate MI All 1.15 MN All 1.15 was based on a 10-ft wide hard surface trail. MO All 1.15 MS All 0.90 MT All 0.95 1.14 Pavement Removal. A layer of pavement is often NB All 0.95 removed prior to an overlay. An engineering estimate from NC All 0.90 the city of Chino in southern California identifies both port- ND All 0.95 NH All 1.10 land cement and bituminous concrete pavement removal at NJ All 1.25 $15.60* per cubic yard (8). NM All 0.95 NV All 0.95 NY Upstate NY 1.10 1.15 Curb/Gutter Removal. Removal of curbing was NYC New York City Metro 1.40 given in a report from the San Francisco Department of Park- OH All 1.00 ing and Traffic at a cost of $5* per linear ft (9). This cost is OK All 0.90 OR All 1.10 used in the model. PA Except Philadelphia 1.05 PAP Philadelphia Area 1.25 RI All 1.15 1.20 Pavement SC All 0.90 SD All 0.95 Bicycle facilities on roadways are typically paved in bitu- TN All 0.90 minous concrete or portland cement concrete. Brick, paving TX All 0.90 USA All 1.00 stones, or other materials are occasionally used in select sit- UT All 0.95 uations. Trails may also be paved in a soft surface such as VA All 0.95 crushed stone, or a natural surface. The cost model provides VT All 1.10 the user with a selection of the three most common trail sur- WA All 1.15 faces; portland cement concrete, bituminous concrete, and WI All 1.10 WV All 1.00 crushed stone. Depth of pavement and aggregate base will WY All 0.95 vary at the project and at the regional level. The unit cost of an installed concrete path was derived from the survey of bikeway projects. However, the survey data were

OCR for page 9
14 highly variable in the specificity of information provided about 1.23 Crushed Stone Surface. A crushed stone surface is the facility and what elements of construction were included a commonly used lower cost method of surfacing for trails in the costs. In addition, unit costs were often provided using with low use, in rural areas, in environmentally sensitive different methods such as miles or square feet. To normalize areas to minimize run-off, or other reasons as locally speci- the cost data to a common measure, all costs were converted fied. Only two of the sample responses specified costs for a to cubic yards. In instances in which all pathway dimensions stone-surfaced path. A cost range of $240 to $359/cubic yard were not provided, standard dimensions were assumed for was derived from estimates provided by The Rails to Trails pathway width and depth. Bike paths were assumed to be 10 ft Conservancy (12). A cost of $37/cubic yard* was derived wide and bike lanes on roadways, 5 ft wide. Depth of finish from a 2000 Iowa DOT report cost (5). This value is consis- pavement was assumed to be 5 in. for portland cement, 3 in. tent with other paving values whereas the Rails to Trails for bituminous concrete and 3 in. for stone dust surfaces. numbers appear to represent full trail construction rather than Depth of pavement will vary by location, soil conditions, cli- just the cost of surfacing. mate, cost, and other factors. The aggregate base was assumed to be 4 in. deep. These assumptions are derived from the sur- vey results. The cubic yard measures were further adjusted to 1.24 Aggregate Base. A value of $28/cubic yard* for a a 2002 base year using the factors described at the end of this granular base was derived from the Iowa Trails 2000 (5). section for adjusting costs by year of construction. Factors for This was the only source in the survey that specified a cost regional cost variance as described earlier were applied to for the granular base. further normalize the costs. The model user should also be aware that pavement design could affect the functional and, 1.25 Curbing. Curbing is often required when a road is in turn, the economic life of the pavement. Because pavement built or rebuilt. Curbing is typically cast-in-place concrete; life depends on a number of variables unique to a site, no however, in the Northeast region, granite or other stone mate- adjustment has been made for life of pavement in the model. rial is often used as a curb material. The Vermont Agency of The resulting unit costs still had wide variation most likely Transportation (VTrans) projects a range of costs for con- resulting from varying scope. Some costs may have been lim- crete curbing. Cast-in-place concrete curbing is $16 to $22 ited to the marginal cost of additional paving as part of a road- per linear ft as part of a larger roadway project and $26 to $37 way project. Others may have included clearing and grubbing, per linear ft as part of a sidewalk project. The cost of granite excavation, and drainage. Median values from the sample were curbing is estimated at $24 per linear ft* (13), which is an used to provide an estimate of paving costs. average of the midpoint values of concrete and granite curb- ing costs. 1.21 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement. Portland cement concrete pavement is used in many regions of the 1.26 Curb Ramps. Curb ramps are located at the corners country. Ten of the surveyed projects specified concrete of intersections (either one or two per corner) providing acces- paths and the median unit cost is employed in the model. sible access between the sidewalk and street. According to the The selected median value of $142/cubic yard* is between Public Works director at the City of Berkeley, the typical cost the low cost of $84/cubic yard for an Iowa DOT project (5) is $1,200 to install a curb ramp, including removal of existing and the high of $189/cubic yard for widening a bike lane curbs (14). by 1 ft in Wisconsin (10). The research on concrete pavement provided a wide range of values. Given this range and the skew, it was decided a 1.30 Drainage median value would best reflect the value at the national level of concrete pavement. State or regional conversions factors 1.31 Storm Drains. The best information found on would then be applied to convert to local costs. drainage costs was in the Dutchess County, New York: 2002 Hopewell Hamlet Pedestrian Plan (15). This planning docu- ment included cost information on dozens of components of 1.22 Bituminous Concrete Pavement. Bituminous con- a village-wide pedestrian improvement project. Costs were crete pavement is the most common surface for both road- identified as $113 per linear ft* for drainage pipes. ways and trails. The unit cost of $135/cubic yard* for bitu- Storm drains include only the cost of the pipe by length. minous concrete paving used in the cost model represents the Drainage is site specific and varies significantly. This report median cost from a sample of 26 bikeway projects that spec- included only the cost of the pipes as a representative indica- ified the use of bituminous concrete paving. The value falls tor of drainage costs. Complete estimation of drainage cost between the cost of widening a bike lane by 1 ft in Wisconsin would include the cost and number of drain grates and exca- in 2002 (10) and the 2004 estimated cost of adding 4-ft wide vation and fill requirements. Those factors are difficult to esti- shoulders to a roadway in South Dakota (11). mate at the planning level; hence the cost is based solely on

OCR for page 9
15 the length of the pipe. At one extreme, no formal drainage may marking is used on roadways where significant volumes of be provided. This could be on flat terrain with soil and vege- bicycles may be present but there is no physical space for a tation along the edges to absorb and retain the runoff. At the bicycle lane. These markings are often used on roadways other extreme, storm drains could include catch basins with with two or more lanes in the direction the symbol is applied. sumps, grates, and a network of pipes. Because of the wide The shared lane marking typically consists of a bicycle sym- variance in drainage scope and cost, as determined by site con- bol with a directional arrow. California now uses a bicycle ditions and facility design, only cost of the pipes is included. symbol and two chevrons. Given the similarity in size and application to the bicycle lane symbol, the cost of the bicy- cle lane application is used for the shared lane marking. 1.40 Pavement Markings 1.41 Bicycle Arrow 1.50 Landscaping 1.42 Bicycle Symbol. Cost information on pavement 1.51 Landscaping--Grass arrow markings (which include the use of a typical bicycle symbol) were collected during an interview with the Cam- 1.52 Landscaping--Trail. Although information spe- bridge, Massachusetts, bicycle coordinator (16). The city has cific to bicycle lanes or trails was preferred, landscaping costs used both tape and thermoplastic markings. However, the associated with highway projects should provide comparable more expensive tape markings ($150 each) are more durable cost information. Two sources in North Carolina provided per than the less expensive thermoplastic ($60 each*) when mile landscaping costs for bicycle lane median landscaping-- installed properly. The city has had problems with tape Cary (21) and the Asheville Greenway 2003 Master Plan installation in the past and so it has shifted to thermoplastic (22). Both sources recorded landscaping costs to be roughly exclusively. $25,000/mi*. Additional information was provided by the Guidelines for the number of arrows and symbols needed Iowa Department of Transportation (5). The Iowa cost was are as follows: bicycle arrows and symbols "shall be placed for basic seeding and mulching by acre of land and was based immediately after an intersection and at other locations as on highway projects. Figures from these sources are included needed" (2, 17). in the cost model to provide the user with a range of choices from basic loam and seed (Landscaping--Grass) to more 1.43 Blue Bike Lanes. Recently, bike lanes in high traf- park-like landscape treatment (Landscaping--Trail). fic or congested areas have been identified with color markings to increase lane visibility. Color markings have 1.53 Root Dams. Root dams are installed around street been used in Europe for a number of years and more trees that are next to the roadway and sidewalk. The root recently in the United States. Portland, Oregon, and Cam- dam directs the roots downward, therefore preventing shal- bridge, Massachusetts, mark the pavement in blue while low roots that heave the sidewalk, road, or trail over time. Burlington, Vermont, uses a blue-green color. The cost of root dams ($10/linear ft) was taken from a rail In Portland, Oregon, in a study conducted by Hunter et al. trail project on Cape Cod in Massachusetts (23). (18), the city identified seven different materials that can be used to mark the pavement. The materials were tested for 2.00 Structures durability, visibility, and cost. Recent experience by the City of Cambridge has identified thermoplastic as the material of 2.10 Bridge choice because of its combination of durability and afford- ability. The cost of materials and installation in Cambridge Bridge costs are presented in two categories: bridge decks was reported to be $10/sqft*. and bridge abutments. The cost of bridge decks is more pre- dictable, and for short spans can be addressed with modular 1.44 Lane Striping. Lane striping delineates travel structures. If circumstances require custom design then, with lanes, shoulders, and bike lanes. The most common width the variety of bridge types and configurations, bridge costs for bicycle lane striping is 4 in. The Virginia Department of can become quite unpredictable. Bridge abutments are nec- Transportation, as reported by the Pedestrian and Bicycle essarily site specific in design and costs are difficult to pre- Information Center, has estimated the cost of a 4-in. bike lane dict reliably. stripe at $0.60 per linear ft or $3,405 per mi* (19). The Ore- gon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan identifies a cost of "as little 2.12 Bridge Decks (concrete or steel). A number of as $2,000 per mile" (20). sources for bridge costs were consulted including state DOTs in Iowa (5), Florida (24), Vermont (13), and Wisconsin (10). 1.45 Shared Lane Marking. The shared lane marking is Ultimately, the Vermont data on bridge costs were selected a recent evolution in bicycle facility implementation. The because they were specific to bike and pedestrian facilities

OCR for page 9
16 and because they included a unit cost (square feet) that 3.20 Traffic Signals could readily be applied to the model. The Vermont estimate of $100/sqft* for bridge construction also appeared to be 3.21 Bicycle Signal. Bicycle signals provide an exclu- consistent with the range of costs from the other state DOTs. sive (or shared crossing with pedestrians or motorists) cross- It should be noted, however, that the Vermont figures were ing at an intersection. The cost element is the installation of for spans of 100 ft or less. a bicycle signal. The county of San Francisco provided an estimate of $10,000* to install a bicycle signal (27). 2.13 Abutments. Bridge abutments support the bridge span at either end and link it to the trail surface. Abutment 3.22 Pedestrian Signal--4 Way design can vary widely based on topography, geology, and environmental constraints (wetlands in particular). There- 3.23 Pedestrian Signal--2 Way. Bicycles are legal fore little information on cost of abutments is transferable vehicles on the roadway; therefore, when riding on a road- from one setting to another. Users are encouraged to input way, cyclists are required to follow the same traffic signal their own abutment cost based on local conditions if avail- directions as motorists. In addition to roadway signals, there able. The Wisconsin DOT provided a bridge abutment cost are instances where a specific bicycle signal would be useful, of $9,500 each* with the caveat that this cost is highly vari- such as at road crossings of multipurpose trails. According able (10). to the Florida DOT (24), a two-corner walk/don't walk sig- nal system with a signal head and activator costs $1,900.* A four-corner system (with eight of each unit) costs $3,900.* 2.20 Underpass Additional costs result if a full signal system is installed. 2.21 Underpass. Grade separation of pedestrian and 3.24 Loop Detector. Loop detectors are typically used at bicycle paths is desirable when traffic volumes and speeds intersections to detect traffic. When activated, the detector will discourage safe crossing of a highway, or railroad tracks, or initiate change of the signal to a programmed sequence. How- when necessitated by the crossing of a limited access high- ever, not all loop detectors detect bicycles. Loop detector way. Cost estimates for underpasses will vary considerably, designs that accommodate bicycles are available. An estimate depending on the geometric requirements of the specific site of $1,500* developed for the County of San Francisco is used method of construction, potential disruption to the surface in the cost model (28). roadway or rail tracks, and the construction phasing required. A 100-ft long pedestrian underpass under Route 1 in Wool- wich, Maine, was built in 1999 for a cost of $400,000 or 3.30 Barriers $4,000/ft* (25). 3.31 Trail Gates. Gates are sometimes required on bicy- cle trails to prevent access by private motor vehicles while providing access to public safety and security and mainte- 3.00 Equipment nance vehicles. Cost information on security gates was not 3.10 Signs available from the survey. Gate prices are being sought from suppliers. 3.11 Sign with Post. Studies and reports where sign costs had been specifically identified were reviewed to 3.32 Trail Bollards. Typically bollards are placed at the develop estimates for the cost of providing signs along a intersection of a trail with local streets or other locations bicycle facility. The data sources did not always identify where passage of motor vehicles is prohibited and bicycles is whether or not costs included signposts or cost of installation permitted. or only the cost of the uninstalled sign. The City and County of Denver, Colorado, prepared a report The Asheville Greenways 2003 Master Plan (22) provided of bid cost data of road construction projects for 1999 iden- cost information for different sign types (informational, tifying a unit cost for bollards of $130 each* (29). direction, warning, etc). The New York City Bicycle Coali- tion provided information from Pittsburgh's experience with 3.33 Fencing. Fencing is used for safety in some ROWs sign costs including installation and posts. Although there that are shared with other vehicles. Fencing is also used in was a range of sign costs from these sources ($55 to $1,000 some locations to protect private property, particularly in per sign), most examples for installed signs were between densely developed urban areas. The per mile cost of 6-ft $100 and $250, with $200* being an amount identified by black vinyl chain link fence with a top rail was developed three different sources (26). using a suppliers online calculator (30). The estimated cost

OCR for page 9
17 was $43,000/mi uninstalled. The developed cost of installation not in use. The rack can hold two bicycles securely. The was estimated at $24,000/mi, for a total estimated cost of racks, in constant view of the driver, are quite secure. $67,000/mi.* The installation cost assumes a five-person crew The primary supplier for bus racks is Sportworks located for 2 weeks at $2,400/day. in Woodinville, Washington. Sportworks reports the cost of a bicycle rack as "approximately $549 per unit*" (33). 3.40 Parking 3.52 Interior Train Rack. Bicycle racks have been Bicycle racks are the most common method of securing a installed in public transportation vehicles, particularly light bicycle. Bicycle lockers are also used, primarily at public facil- rail and commuter rail cars. Installations to date have been ities including train stations and other city property. Bicycle unique from agency to agency and even from vehicle to vehi- lockers have the advantage of weather protection and greater cle. One transit agency reported that installation of racks security for bicycles and gear. added no cost to vehicle procurement. Due to the low cost and limited availability, it is recommended that the cost model user input an estimated cost based on local conditions. 3.41 Bicycle Rack (Inverted U, 2 bicycles). The most common bicycle rack, particularly on city streets, is the inverted U rack. In Boston, U racks were installed in 2003 for 3.60 Lighting a total cost including installation of $190 each* (31). 3.61 Street Lights. Street lighting will typically be a part of a larger roadway project; however, lighting may be 3.42 Bicycle Rack (Ribbon or similar, 6 bicycles). High installed as part of a trail project. A street light cost estimate capacity bicycle racks are used at shopping malls, busi- for the City of Chino, California, was $3,640 per fixture* (8). nesses, hospitals, and other locations with high demand for bicycle parking. Most racks may be ordered in a desired length and capacity as needed. 3.70 Security Virginia DOT reports a rack that holds 10 to 12 bicycles to have an installed cost range from $325 to $730 (26). Using 3.71 Emergency Call Boxes. Emergency call boxes may the high-end number, the cost is estimated at $65 per bicycle be a part of a bicycle facility project, particularly off-street space.* Length and quantity of racks ordered will affect the trails. The U.S. DOT Benefits and Costs Database provides unit cost. information on a call box project in Georgia. The average cost for each call box including installation costs was about 3.43 Bicycle Locker (2 bicycles). Bicycle locker units $5,590* (34). typically hold two bicycles each. Installed bicycle locker costs are reported by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information 3.72 Security Cameras. Security cameras are often used center as $1,000 per locker (32). in public places and therefore may be used on public streets or trails. The U.S. DOT Benefits and Costs Database includes the cost of a roadside detection camera using a closed-circuit 3.44 Bicycle Station. Bicycle stations are relatively new television (CCTV) video camera. The estimated cost of this in the United States. Bicycle stations vary in what is pro- camera is $7,500* to $17,000. The low end of this cost is used vided. They typically include bicycle storage facilities, for the cost model. The cost cited includes installation of a showers, bicycle and bicycle repair equipment rental, and color video camera with pan, tilt, and zoom (PTZ) (35). information about biking in the local area. Cost estimates to develop a bicycle station will vary widely based on location. The City of Bellevue in Washington State received a federal 4.00 Real Estate grant of $200,000* to fund a bike station. This number is used as a unit cost. Given the potential variability in cost, Alternative Sources of Data on Land Values model users are encouraged to seek a local cost if available. The procedures and data provided in the model are intended as default values if other more traditional methods of obtain- 3.50 Conveyance ing land values are not used. The most direct method of obtain- ing an estimate of land value is to consult a local real estate 3.51 Bus Rack. Bus racks have been institutionalized broker. If the land is "on the market," a value can be immedi- throughout the country on many public transit systems. Bus ately determined. A real estate broker can provide advice on racks are mounted on the front of the bus and fold up when the difference between the asking price and the projected

OCR for page 9
18 sales price. Property is almost always listed at a price higher median land value by state from housing values reported in than the seller is willing to accept. the Census of Housing. Another source of information on land values is the local property assessor's office. Property assessments are made for Urban Land Values. Urban land prices were estimated all property in a municipality and are a matter of public record. from an extensive listing of commercial property for sale com- Staff is available in the office to aid in finding land value data piled by C. B. Richard Ellis Company (37). There were not for a specific property. It is important to apply a factor that rep- enough listings for each state to provide a statistically defen- resents the ratio of assessed value to market value. Assessed sible land value for each state. Using all the data of several values are generally conservative and below market values. hundred listings yields a statistically defensible price for land Assessors usually keep information on the ratio of assessed at the national level. The national price was estimated and to market values. indexed for each state using the state's median household A third method of estimating the value of a given property income. The derived U.S. average of $18.91/sqft* seems is to have a land appraiser provide an estimate of value. Land reasonable absent more site-specific data. appraisals are normally done at later stages in a project and Urban CBD Land Values. Estimates of land values for can be expensive. Often three appraisals are required to firmly 53 downtown areas in U.S. cities were derived from rental establish the value of land. Appraisers often will provide a rates from a Spaulding & Slye Colliers Survey of Class A "preliminary" estimate or "windshield appraisal" of land value Downtown Office Space Prices. Property value is generally for a smaller fee, in anticipation of a full appraisal when one between 6 and 9 times annual gross rent and CBD land val- is required for a project. Actual purchase prices can be higher ues are approximately 20% of the value of commercial prop- than the appraised value if the purchase is negotiated or if a erty (38). Land prices for 53 urban CBDs were estimated property value is contested in court. based on property values equal to 7.5 times annual rental rates and a value of land equal to 20% of the property value. Real Estate Values Applying the Real Estate Component of the Model Real estate values vary markedly by location throughout the country and by density of development in the project Analysts using the model to estimate the land cost must area. Unit prices for land acquisition were estimated for four identify the following: settings--rural, suburban, urban residential, and urban cen- The state in which the project is located, tral business district (CBD). The city in which the project is located (if land is to be acquired in a major urban CBD), and Rural and Suburban Land Values. Estimates of per acre Whether the land is in a rural (undeveloped area), a sub- land costs for rural and suburban areas by state were obtained urban (single family home area), an urban (dense resi- from the U.S. Census of Agriculture (rural land) and the U.S. dential area), or an urban CBD area. Census of Housing (suburban land). The latest data from the Census of Agriculture (which is taken every 5 years) are for Whether an area is defined as urbanized or is in a metro- 2002. The latest data from the Census of Housing (which is politan area can be determined from U.S. Census informa- taken every 10 years) are for 2000. Data were updated to tion (accessible on the U.S. Census website at http://www. 2002 using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for housing, census.gov/). The predominant land use of an area can be published by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor determined from a land use map or an aerial photograph. A Statistics (4). An extrapolation of the data between 1987 and zoning map may help as well because land values are par- 2003 resulted in an annual rate of inflation of 2.5%. tially determined by zoning. Data are compiled by state in both the Census of Agricul- ture and Census of Housing. State-level data were thought to be most appropriate for use because they reflect regional Other Capital Costs variation in land costs and can be readily identified by the In any construction, there is a need for design, construc- cost estimator. Rural land value is reported by acre and can be tion inspection, and administrative services. used directly (adjusted in accordance with the CPI for year). Suburban property values are reported as the estimated value for a home. To estimate the value of suburban land, the prop- Planning erty value must be divided into land and building (improve- ments) components. Typically, the value of land accounts for Planning activities such as identification of project needs, one-third of the total property value of single-family detached definition of project objectives, project evaluation, and gen- housing (36). This factor was used to derive estimates of eral definition of project scope tend to cost about 2% of the

OCR for page 9
19 project cost for major transit projects. This value is also the Specificity of project scope, estimated cost of planning used by the state of Iowa as iden- Time lag between estimate and actual construction, and tified in the survey of bicycle facility cost data. Changing market conditions. Design/Engineering Project Scope Design services are typically divided into basic services As projects advance from concept through design to con- and special services. Basic services are the efforts required to struction, the scope of the project becomes increasingly better perform basic design for a simple project. In addition to basic defined. As a result, uncertainty declines and the appropriate services, most projects require special services for such contingency in the cost estimate correspondingly declines. things as environmental assessment and permitting, commu- Even with this progression, certain construction elements are nity coordination, and custom design of features such as spe- better specified than others (e.g., installing stock items, such as cial landscaping or designing for unique soil conditions. signs or fences, is clearly specified with predictable costs). From the survey of bicycle project cost data, Iowa estimated Custom items (e.g., constructing bridge abutments, items design fees as 7% of construction costs with an additional 5% involving earthwork) are less well specified. Even with soil for construction phase services for a total of 12%. Vermont sampling, actual soil conditions are only fully identified dur- estimated design fees at 10 to 30% of project costs (13). ing excavation. Design fees for the General Services Administration, Prop- erty Development generally range from 8% to 12% of project cost (39). Commonly, total design fees for public facilities Time Lag average about 10%. Based on the foregoing information, for purposes of this project, a design fee of 10% of the construc- The greater the lag in time between preparation of the cost tion cost has been used as a default value in the cost model. estimate and project construction, the greater the potential for change in costs. An example of this is the increase in cost of bituminous concrete with increasing oil prices. The base year Inspection for the cost estimates is 2002. The contingency should reflect the uncertainty of future costs. Field inspection is required to ensure that work is being performed in accordance with the construction contract requirements and to ensure that quality standards are met. Market Conditions Agency engineering staff would commonly perform inspec- tion. Depending on the size of the job and availability of An additional element of uncertainty is market conditions agency staff, an agency might hire a separate contractor to at the time of cost negotiations. Construction costs vary perform these services such as a "clerk of the works," who depending on how active the construction industry is in the might provide both inspection and administration services. area at the time project bids are sought. Additionally, real For large transit projects, field inspection costs are about estate values can be very unpredictable. 2% of construction costs. Considering the foregoing, an overall project contingency of 20% has been applied to the base year of 2002 capital cost estimate to reflect the uncertainty of future conditions. An Administration additional contingency of 10% has been applied to the con- struction cost estimate to reflect the general nature of the From the survey of bicycle projects, Vermont identified project scope. Within construction, an additional 10% in con- administration costs as 10% of construction, real estate, and tingency has been added for more unpredictable construction design costs and Iowa cited project administration as 5% of activities, specifically earthwork and the construction of bridge total costs. Project administration costs typically run at 6% abutments. Finally, an additional 20% contingency has been of construction costs + 2 % of planning and design costs for added to the real estate cost estimate to reflect the uncertainty major FTA-funded projects. Since planning and design costs in predicting real estate markets. are typically a small portion of overall project costs, project It is recommended that the model user review the applica- administration costs of 6% of construction estimates have tion of contingencies and adjust the contingencies in the model been assumed for cost estimating purposes. as indicated by the level of uncertainty associated with specific cost elements of the proposed project. Contingencies Total Build Year Capital Costs Contingencies are included in cost estimates to reflect uncertainty. Uncertainty in construction project costs is a Unit costs in the cost model are based on a base year of function of several factors: 2002. The year 2002 is the latest year for which a substantial

OCR for page 9
20 amount of cost data is available for all elements. The con- When bicycle facilities are elements of other, larger facil- struction, equipment, real estate, and contingency costs are ities, the maintenance costs are often subsumed into the cost summed to obtain the total project cost in 2002 dollars. of the maintenance of the larger facility. Often the marginal Project construction occurs several years into the future. To or incremental costs of added maintenance are so modest that provide a more accurate assessment of the project cost, the they are not accounted for as discrete facility costs. For exam- "build year" or midyear of construction is identified. For exam- ple, for a roadway-widening project, it is difficult to discretely ple, if construction is predicted to take 4 years and will start in identify the added operations and maintenance (O&M) costs 3 years (from 2004), the project completion year will be 2011. associated with the widening from the overall costs of main- The build year or midpoint of the construction will be 2009. taining the road. Accordingly, for most facilities it is assumed Researchers developed an inflation factor by extrapolating that the added O&M costs are negligible. the Producer Price Index Industry Data for Highway and Street A typical exception to this assumption is the cost of land- Construction from the period 1987 through 2003. When the scape maintenance for bicycle trails as discussed in sec- cost model user enters the build year into the model, the index tion 5.10. for the build year is applied to the 2002 base year costs to provide estimated build year costs. 5.10 Maintenance 5.00 Operations and Maintenance Research into trail maintenance costs identified a data source that has been widely used by trail proponents to estimate costs. Operations cost for bicycle facilities typically includes the Although independent sources were also identified, several trail cost of security or policing the facility. Maintenance includes proponents used a Rails to Trails Conservancy breakdown of pavement (sweeping, snow removal, and repair), drainage maintenance costs for the year 2000. The cost items include (cleaning and repair of storm drains), traffic controls (pavement drainage maintenance, sweeping, trash removal, weed con- marking, signs, and traffic signal maintenance), and landscape trol, mowing, minor repairs, supplies, and fuel. The total maintenance. annual per mile cost is estimated at $6,500 (40).