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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Appendix A. Performance Measures for Asset Management The tables on the following pages provide lists of performance measures that may be considered for transportation asset management. These measures have not been fully vetted as the best ones for asset management because this distinction depends largely on the characteristics of the imple- menting agency. However, if implemented properly, these candidates have potential for being "good measures." Categories used for measures are defined as follows: Preservation--Measures the condition of the transportation system and actions to keep the sys- tem in a state of good repair. Measures are often specific to the type of asset. Performance mea- sures may be expressed, for example, by physical condition (e.g., extent or severity of distress and deviations from nominal track gauge), by indexes that combine a number of condition mea- surements or that relate to user perceptions of condition (e.g., pavement condition index, pre- sent serviceability index, or rideability index for pavements or bridge health index for bridges), or by other, not necessarily technical, measures (e.g., financial asset value). For purposes of this study, preservation also includes actions to maintain a state of good repair in emergency situa- tions other than terrorist attacks (e.g., severe storms, earthquakes, landslides, scour around foun- dations, and flooding). Mobility and Accessibility--Measures the ease of movement of people and goods. Accessibil- ity is the ability of people and goods to reach desired activities or destinations. Mobility and accessibility are grouped together here because they are related and share common measures. Mobility measures include the time and cost of making a trip and the relative ease or diffi- culty with which a trip is made, especially congestion and the trip measures related to conges- tion. Some of these trip measures reflect a supplier perspective (e.g., volume-capacity ratio and capacity-related level of service), while others reflect a user perspective (e.g., speed, travel time, delay, trip reliability, and user cost). Accessibility measures include a "density" of opportuni- ties enabled by transportation services (e.g., number of households within a 30-minute drive of key regional centers or number of employment opportunities within a 10-minute walk of tran- sit stops) or the ability of a facility to serve a particular user group (e.g., a particular segment of population or type of freight). Availability of modes and modal choice can also be treated as an accessibility measure. Accessibility is often expressed from a user's perspective. Operations and Maintenance--Measures the effectiveness of the transportation system in terms of throughput and travel costs and revenues from a system perspective and maintenance level of service measures focused on the customer experience of the system. Since throughput is inter- preted in terms of people or goods as well as vehicles, measures of vehicle occupancy or freight capacity may be included here. Cost efficiency includes measures such as average cost per mile or per VMT. Systemwide fuel efficiency is also included. A-1

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Safety--Measures the quality of transportation service in terms of crashes or incidents that are harmful to people and damaging to freight, vehicles, and transportation infrastructure. Perfor- mance measures also reflect asset conditions that contribute to or detract from safety. While safety is often gauged by the number, frequency, severity, and cost of accidents, recent trends recognize a wider sphere of interest in the vehicle- and driver-related causes of crashes and in harm to agency work crews, particularly in work zones. Work is also ongoing to predict the risk of future safety problems at candidate locations. Economic Development--Measures direct and indirect impacts of transportation on the econ- omy. Direct impacts are typically related to the cost of transportation experienced by users and shippers. Indirect measures look at transportation's contribution to the general economy and are expressed in measures such as economic output (e.g., gross state product), employ- ment (e.g., jobs supported or created), and income. Various proxy measures are often used to gauge economic development impacts, including traffic at border crossings, manufacturers/ shippers/employers who have relocated for transportation purposes, volume of freight orig- inating or terminating in region, number or percent of employers that cite difficulty in access- ing the needed labor supply because of transportation, and measures of truck travel per unit of regional economic activity. Environmental Impacts--Measures effects on the environment, including air quality, ground- water, protected species, noise, and natural vistas. Output-based performance measures may also be defined for actions critical to mitigating the above impacts (e.g., protecting wetlands, con- structing wildlife passages across transportation facilities, using snow and ice chemicals that protect groundwater and air quality, and monitoring and controlling hazardous materials). Social Impacts--Measures effects on broader society (e.g., neighborhoods adjacent to trans- portation facilities) or on population groups (e.g., disadvantaged). This is in contrast to "qual- ity of life" impacts, which are interpreted by some agencies to mean customer satisfaction specifically. Security--Measures protection of travelers, freight, vehicles, and system infrastructure from criminal and terrorist actions. Protection of infrastructure and users of this infrastructure against other emergencies (e.g., severe storms, earthquakes, landslides, flooding, and scouring of foun- dations) is included in preservation. Delivery--Measures the delivery of transportation projects and services to the customer. Key performance measures include output-oriented accomplishment measures that complement outcome-oriented measures in the other categories, measures of efficiency and effectiveness in use of resources, and impacts on customers that need to be considered in evaluation of alterna- tive delivery strategies. A-2

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.1 Preservation Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Pavement Condition/ Average condition Ride Quality Number of miles below a threshold acceptable condition level (e.g., number of miles with rut depth greater than inch) Percent miles in good/fair/poor condition Bridge Condition Average health index (0100 scale) Percent structurally deficient (SD) Percent with sufficiency rating less than 50 Percent of bridges that meet department standards Number of posted or restricted bridges Number of steel bridges with section loss in a member Percent of bridges with deck, superstructure, substructure National Bridge Inventory (NBI) rating 4 or below Asset Condition Percent length/count/area in good/fair/poor condition (General) Percent length/count/area in "state of good repair" Remaining Life/ Percent asset quantity with fewer than 5 years remaining service life (RSL) Structural Capacity Average RSL Percent of design life achieved Percent asset quantity forecast to achieve full design life Average age or percent asset quantity greater than n years old (age can be a useful proxy for remaining life when data are limited) Percent pavement miles with weight restrictions due to structural limitations Percent assets eligible for replacement Percent asset quantity out of service due to deteriorated condition Asset Value Replacement value Book value (historical or appreciated to current dollars) Ratio of current value to replacement cost (continued on next page) A-3

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.1 Preservation Performance Measures (continued) Measure Type Examples Backlog or Need Current value of cost to preserve assets in state of good repair over defined time horizon Backlog of deferred maintenance Estimated cost to achieve target condition level or eliminate deficiencies Ratio of deferred maintenance dollars to replacement value (facility condition index) Ratio of deterioration or lost value to replacement value (debt index) Agency Financial Cost of emergency maintenance due to asset age or poor condition Impacts Agency cost due to deferred maintenance (present value of deferred mainte- nance minus cost to do it now) Customer Benefit or VMT-weighted average pavement condition Disbenefit (or Percent of VMT on roads in poor condition Surrogates) Percent of truck VMT or tonnage affected by weight or clearance restrictions Number of overload permits rejected due to bridge structural capacity deficiency Number of functionally obsolete bridges User costs associated with rough roads or detours due to bridge posting or road restrictions Hours or days during which asset not in service due to preservation work Customer Perception Customer rating of asset condition or agency preservation activities Customer satisfaction rating A-4

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.2 Mobility and Accessibility Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Congestion Level of service (LOS)--measure of congestion from AF based on volume-to- capacity ratio (facility-specific measure) Volume-to-capacity (V/C) ratio (facility-specific measure) Travel time index (ratio of peak travel time to free-flow travel time) Travel rate index (amount of additional time required due to congestion) Misery index--measurement of the severity of congestion on the worst 20 percent of trips (ratio of average travel rate for the longest 20 percent of trips to average travel rate for all trips) Speed reduction index (ratio across different facilities of decline in speeds due to congestion)--used to compare relative congestion levels on different facilities Amount or percent (VMT or PMT) of congested travel Number or percent of highway-miles (by class of road) operating under capac- ity, approaching capacity, or over capacity (or at particular V/C thresholds for n hours per day) Number of intersections congested (e.g., with LOS E or F) during peak hours Travel time under congested conditions Lane-mile duration index (number of congested lane-miles times the duration of congestion) Maximum queue lengths (facility-specific measure) Speed Travel rate (e.g., minutes per mile)--for a roadway segment or corridor Average speed for given roadway segment or origin-destination pair Average annual rate of change in average speed Ratio between bus speed and automobile speed Percent of time average speed is below (or above) a threshold level Percent of high-priority highways with average speed of 60 mph Mobility index (VMT, PMT or ton-miles times average speed) Travel Time Average travel time (by mode or cross modes) for a given origin-destination pair or trip type 95-percent reliable travel time Travel time from freight intermodal facilities to highway facilities Average shipment time (by commodity, mode, local versus long-distance) Changes in average, median, and 90th-percentile travel time over time Percent difference in travel time between second fastest emergency route and the fastest route (continued on next page) A-5

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.2 Mobility and Accessibility Performance Measures (continued) Measure Type Examples Travel Time Reliability Buffer time index--percent of extra time a traveler needs to allow in order to be on time 95 percent of the time Variation in average speed (location-specific measure) Standard deviation of travel time Deviation from average trip time for selected origin-destination pair Number of days when peak-period travel time exceeds twice the free-flow travel time on key commuting routes Percent on-time shipments (by commodity or mode) Delay Total hours of delay (difference between actual travel time and defined standard for acceptable travel time) Hours of incident-related delay Relative delay rate (difference from target or standard)--used to compare delay on different roadway facilities or modes Congestion severity index (hours of delay per million VMT) Average delay per peak-period traveler Hours of stopped time per traveler Percent of peak-period travelers delayed Travel Cost Average shipment cost between specified origins and destinations or facilities Trip cost by mode for origin-destination pairs Vehicle operating cost increases due to congestion Travel time cost of congestion Annual percent increase in unit costs of transport industries Dollar losses due to freight delays Economic efficiency/net discounted benefits Accessibility to Percent of target population that can conveniently reach a specific destination destinations (e.g., within X hours, no more than Y-percent circuity, with less than Z minutes of delay) Percent of working population within X miles of employment PMT per capita A-6

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.2 Mobility and Accessibility Performance Measures (continued) Measure Type Examples Accessibility to facilities Average time from snow event to bare pavement operations and services Percent of population within X miles or minutes of the state highway system Percent of facilities (e.g., rail stations) that are ADA compliant Number of driveway cuts per mile (for defined corridors)--both a measure of accessibility and "side friction" impacting corridor mobility Percent of urban population with convenient access to public transit (e.g., living within a quarter mile of a transit stop with a non-rush-hour service frequency of 15 minutes or less) Access time to passenger or intermodal facilities Accessibility to differ- Modal split by trip purpose ent modes Average automobile ownership Transit service availability by county Ability of shippers to access desired suppliers or markets within specified ser- vice parameters (based on shipment time, cost, and circuity) Percent of roadway-miles with bicycle accommodations Percent of roadway-miles with pedestrian accommodations Percent of planned bike route system implemented Number of autos (or taxis) per capita Percent of ADA-compliant vehicles Backlog or Need Estimated cost to achieve a given performance level or to eliminate deficiencies (e.g., eliminate peak-hour congestion on priority routes or complete bike route system) Estimated cost of recommended work with benefit/cost ratio greater than 1 Customer Perceptions Customer ratings of trip time, reliability, congestion severity, travel cost, travel time, and so forth Customer satisfaction with snow and ice removal A-7

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.3 Operations and Maintenance Performance Measures Measure Type Examples System operations See mobility measures (e.g., congestion and speed) efficiency VMT per lane-mile (per capita) Passengers per vehicle-mile or hour (transit) Percent of road-miles with low speed limits or restrictions Average circuity for truck trips between a selected origin-destination pair Number of extended breakdowns in travel flow on freeways for a given time period Incident Response/ Average annual incident response time on limited access miles managed by ITS Winter Operations Average time to clear incident or percent of incidents cleared in less than X minutes Time interval after precipitation stops to restore road conditions to defined standard See also Delay measures Capacity and Number of hours (or days) of road closure Availability Intermodal terminal capacity Bulk material loading rate (number of trucks per hour) Number of truck units, railroad cars, or containers that can be stored at intermodal facility Railroad grade crossing-related delay time Percent of arterials and/or downtown intersections under closed loop control Traffic signal malfunction rate Maintenance Level of Lineal feet of damaged guardrail Service Number of pieces of roadside litter per mile Lineal feet of ditches more than 50-percent full of sediment or other material Number of deficient (e.g., clogged) catch basins Sign and pavement marking retroreflectivity Cost Efficiency Average cost per lane-mile constructed Average operations and/or maintenance cost per lane-mile Construction and maintenance expenditures per VMT Cost per passenger trip (urban versus rural) Cost per percent point increase in lane-miles in good condition Ratio of oversize/overweight permit fees collected to dollar value of damage caused A-8

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.3 Operations and Maintenance Performance Measures (continued) Measure Type Examples Occupancy Percent or number of multiple-occupant vehicles Percent of work trips by single-occupant vehicles (SOVs) or non-SOVs Average vehicle occupancy (by peak/off-peak, and location) Fuel Efficiency Average fuel consumption per trip by type (or shipment) Annual fuel consumption per VMT Gallons of wasted fuel Backlog or Need Estimated cost to achieve a given performance level or eliminate deficiencies (e.g., bring 80 percent of arterial network under closed-loop control or cut incident response time by 20 percent) Estimated cost of recommended operational improvements with benefit/cost ratio greater than 1 Customer perceptions Customer ratings of facility operations and availability A-9

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.4 Safety Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Crashes Number of crashes by type, mode, system, location type, and so forth Crash rates--number of crashes (by type) per 100 million VMT Percent reduction in crashes (by type) Number of crashes involving hazardous materials Number of alcohol-related crashes Number of crashes in which speed or traffic violation is a factor Number of crashes in highway construction zones Crash Impacts Number of fatalities (or rate per amount of travel) Number of road workers killed Number of injuries (or rate per amount of travel) Crash costs (total or average)--by type of cost (e.g., property damage or medical) Hours of delay related to crashes Average incident duration or percent of incidents disrupting traffic for more than X minutes Transportation Hazard index (location-specific measure) Infrastructure Number of locations with high crash rates or hazard indexes (exceeding defined threshold) Number of roadway sections (or percent of system miles) not meeting safety standards Number of roadway sections with excessive curves or grades (e.g., as defined by the Highway Performance Monitoring System) Number of roadway locations with identified hazards (barriers, obstacles, and distractions) Number of roadway sections (or miles) with identified cost-effective safety countermeasures Need/Backlog Cost to implement identified safety countermeasures Customer Perception Number of safety-related complaints Customer ratings of transportation facility safety or operational response to incidents Shipper satisfaction with damage/loss rates A-10

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.5 Economic Development Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Economic Costs and Number of jobs within X minutes of population centers Benefits Transportation-related impacts: jobs created, percent of state or regional gross product Economic costs of pollution Direct User Costs Average cost per trip Average cost per ton-mile Transportation Road mileage converted to all-weather surfacing Infrastructure Support Road mileage upgraded to support truck traffic for Freight Movement Support Improved Extent to which projects fall within census urbanized area Service to Existing Urbanized Area Support of Brownfield Serves one or more Brownfield or infill sites (expressed as Yes/No on project or Infill Sites basis; percent or qualitative measure on system basis) Customer Perceptions Percent of businesses that cite problems with transportation as a major factor in relocation, productivity, or expansion A-11

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.6 Transportation Environmental Impacts Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Vehicle Emissions Vehicular emissions by type--NOx, VOC, CO2, CO, ozone, fine particulate mat- ter (PM2.5) --can be limited to nonattainment areas and identified by source (e.g., passenger versus freight) Tons of greenhouse gases generated Air Quality Standard Number of counties that experience isolated transport-related excesses over air Attainment quality standards Urban areas in nonattainment status Population of nonattainment areas Length or Extent of Air Number of days that pollution standard index is in the unhealthful range Quality Problem Percent of time air quality is rated good at monitoring stations Percent or number of counties meeting transport-related national ambient air quality standards Number of days of air quality noncompliance Number of infractions where agency is charged Number of highway funding sanctions imposed for noncompliance with Clean Air Act Percent of permit inspections that result in violations Water Quality, Acres of wetlands replaced or protected for every acre affected by highway Wetlands, Aquatic Life projects Level of fish habitat reduction as a result of new construction Hazmat Impacts Number of incidents involving hazardous materials (or rate per vehicle-mile of hazmat traffic) Number of pipeline spills and accidents Quantity of fuel or hazardous materials released, by mode, per transportation incident Number of oiled seabirds Energy Impacts Percent of vehicles using alternative fuels Average fleet-miles per gallon Fuel consumption per VMT, PMT, or ton-mile Noise Impacts Number of residences or percent of population exposed to highway noise exceeding established standards (or greater than X decibels) Number of noise receptor sites above threshold Constraints on use due to noise (or water) Percent of road network (including concrete sections) with quieter road surface by 2010 Recycling Amount (or percent) of recycled material used in road construction (continued on next page) A-12

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.6 Transportation Environmental Impacts Performance Measures (continued) Measure Type Examples Completion of Number of environmental impact analyses, conformity analyses, or environ- Mitigation Steps mentally friendly partnership projects completed Customer Perceptions Customer satisfaction with transportation decisions affecting the environment Customer perception of air quality Table A.7 Transportation Social Impacts Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Social, Societal, Percent of projects in which community is actively engaged Neighborhood, Number of archaeological and historical sites that are not satisfactorily Community Quality of addressed in project development before construction begins Life Participation (number of projects and number of communities) in neighborhood conservation program. Relative service levels and impacts by community (to address environmental justice considerations) Customer Perceptions Customer perceptions of highway project impacts Table A.8 Transportation Security Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Incident Rates Number (or rate per capita or number of travelers) of crimes at rest areas, bus stops, highways, and so forth by type or severity Value of losses from theft per capita, person-trip, shipment value, ton Prevention Activity Percent of facilities with specific security features (e.g., cameras, lighting, and guards) Percent of facilities passing security tests Customer Perceptions Percent of customers identifying security as a concern Change in customer concern about security over time A-13

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Volume II: Guide for Performance Measure Identification and Target Setting Table A.9 Transportation Delivery Performance Measures Measure Type Examples Accomplishment Quantity of work completed (e.g., lane-miles of pavement resurfacing and number of bridges reconstructed) Dollar value of work completed by type Quality Quality index (based on materials testing, pavement smoothness and inspection results) Percent of material samples meeting specification Efficiency Cost per lane-mile constructed Administrative costs as percent of total program Preliminary engineering (PE) and construction engineering (CE) costs as percent of construction costs Design costs as percent of construction dollars let Percent of highway capital costs spent on construction (contractor payments and direct on-site construction oversight) Percent of cost of preliminary engineering rework Duration of construction (by project type) Schedule and Budget Unprogrammed costs as percent of total Adherence Number of projects let versus planned for letting Number of projects certified versus scheduled for certification Number of consultant contracts executed versus planned Percent of contracts (or contract value) completed on-time Percent of contracts (or contract value) completed on-budget Responsiveness Average response time to emergency work request Percent of work requests closed within X hours or days Backlog Ratio of work under contract to programmed work Backlog of programmed construction work to be let Customer Impact and VMT impacted by work zones Safety Lane-hours restricted due to construction Hours of delay due to work zones Vehicle-miles of detour due to work zones Number of work zone-related crashes Number of road worker injuries A-14