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ALTERNATIVE TRUCK AND BUS INSPECTION STRATEGIES SUMMARY Roadside inspections are a key element of federal and state commercial vehicle safety programs. Designed to ensure compliance with federal and state safety, creden- tialing, and administrative (e.g., weight) regulations, these inspections have tradition- ally been conducted at fixed facilities located on select major highways. A variety of factors (e.g., increasing freight volumes, stagnant or declining enforcement resources, and increased responsibilities for the roadside enforcement personnel) are forcing the typical enforcement model to be reconsidered. This study was designed to identify and describe the characteristics of the various types of alternative commercial truck and bus inspection strategies currently being used by enforcement agencies. This study employed a multifaceted approach to collect the most current informa- tion related to commercial vehicle inspections. Specifically, the approach contained the following elements: Literature review, Survey of state inspection personnel, and Interviews with public- and private-sector stakeholders. The interviews were used to augment the literature review and survey data. Where possible, quantitative measures are cited to document the benefits of traditional and alternative inspection strategies. On the basis of stakeholder survey and interview results, the following key findings were identified: Alternative inspection strategies offer benefits to state stakeholders (e.g., increased effectiveness, maximized resources), as well as to the industry (e.g., level playing field, improved productivity). All stakeholder groups agree that alternative inspection strategies should be employed. There are a variety of strategies and automated inspection tools that are being used by the enforcement community today, including selection algorithms, software to automatically capture inspection data, and electronic screening systems.

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2 Stakeholders agree that many of the current alternative inspection strategies are not performing at their optimal level because of data quality issues (e.g., accuracy, timeliness, integrity). Roughly 60% of stakeholders indicated that their top priority is removing unsafe commercial vehicle drivers from the road because drivers are often at fault when accidents occur. Jurisdictions' communication networks should be upgraded, in order to provide the level of access to data that is critical for supporting mobile and virtual enforce- ment activities. The inclusion of security-related activities in the roadside enforcement process dictates the development of new driver and cargo-based screening tools and the sharing of security-related data. There appears to be strong support for the contin- uation of research aimed at identifying technology that facilitates the screening of drivers, carriers, and vehicles at highway speeds. Based on the key findings, the research team reached the following conclusions: The use of on-board vehicle sensors, as part of the inspection process, should be studied further. It is important for stakeholders to work together to identify the data that are criti- cal to supporting roadside enforcement needs and issues with these data that should be addressed through a structured process. State commercial vehicle enforcement agencies should be actively involved in their state's Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) programs and should support the development of state CVISN program plans that meet the needs of the roadside personnel. These program plans establish the state's funding priorities for federal CVISN deployment grants and are required by (Fed- eral Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Although the industry representatives that were interviewed during this project are very receptive to increasing safety, agencies responsible for commercial vehicle inspections should demonstrate to the industry that by working together there will be tangible, monetary benefits that will accrue to the trucking industry at large. Research regarding new alternative inspection technologies (e.g., wireless bus and truck inspections) should continue. Privacy concerns should be considered when contemplating new enforcement strategies.