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12 CHAPTER 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF TRUCK AND BUS INSPECTION STRATEGIES This section describes the current and emerging technolo- WIM technology determines a vehicle's gross weight, gies used in commercial vehicle inspections, as well as the as well as individual axle weights. In some deployments, findings of the survey and interviews that were conducted by vehicles are weighed at mainline speeds. In other deploy- the study team to develop a better understanding of the char- ments, this weighing is done at slower speeds on the acteristics of truck and bus inspection strategies. ramp to the inspection facility. 3. Once the commercial vehicle is identified, the electronic screening system screens the vehicle and the carrier the CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES USED IN vehicle is assigned to based on a state's unique screen- COMMERCIAL VEHICLE INSPECTIONS ing algorithm. A variety of data are used to determine A variety of technologies are used routinely to identify, whether a vehicle should be pulled into an inspection screen, and inspect commercial vehicle at the roadside. In station. These data include a carrier/vehicle's registra- some cases, these technologies have been mainstreamed into tion and fuel tax status, data gathered from the WIM, as other programs (e.g., CVISN, Motor Carrier Safety Assistance well as data concerning the carrier/vehicle's past safety Program), which has increased the number of jurisdictions performance. Jurisdictions use numerous algorithms using this technology. The most commonly used technologies to determine a carrier's past performance, including include the following: Inspection Selection System (ISS), Inspection Selec- tion System-2 (ISS-2), SAFESTAT, as well as state/ Electronic screening, which combines vehicle identifi- e-screening system's proprietary algorithms. All of these cation, vehicle screening, and WIM technologies; algorithms analyze a carrier/vehicle's past inspection Virtual weigh stations (VWS); record, compliance review history, and safety history ASPEN roadside inspection software; and in order to calculate a numeric value that summarized Infrared brake detectors. the carrier's relative safety performance. For instance, any vehicle that is assigned an ISS-2 score greater than Each of these technologies is described below. 75 is recommended for inspection. 4. Based on the data analyzed in step 3, the driver of the commercial vehicle is informed about whether the vehi- Electronic Screening Systems cle can bypass the inspection site or if it must pull into the site for further inspection. Vehicles that are allowed Electronic screening systems are designed to target a juris- to bypass the site will be shown a green light on their diction's enforcement efforts at motor carriers, vehicles, and in-cab transponder. Vehicles that must pull into the site commercial drivers that are most likely to be in violation of are shown a red light on their transponder. federal, state and local regulations/laws. To achieve this goal, electronic screening systems combine a variety of technolo- Electronic screening systems currently are deployed in gies, as illustrated in Figure 2. 36 states. Figure 2 illustrates the implementation of the following steps: Virtual Weigh Stations 1. Commercial vehicles that have been enrolled in an electronic screening program are identified using a Virtual weigh stations use technology to remotely monitor windshield-mounted transponder. The transponder commercial vehicles and enforce commercial vehicle laws stores an identifier that is unique to each vehicle. The and regulations. The technologies used at each VWS vary commercial vehicle is identified approximately one- depending on the focus of the enforcement activity (e.g., if quarter of a mile in advance of an inspection station. they are screening trucks for weight violations, credential 2. As the commercial vehicle approaches the inspection violations, etc.). The range of technologies employed at a facility, it also may be weighed via in-road scales. This VWS may include the following: