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15 for or the cargo they are hauling. One interviewee noted that on the accuracy of the information. Means must be investi- a driver with a 50% out-of-service rate was involved in a gated that would provide the mechanisms by which data recent bus crash that resulted in 23 deaths. could not be tampered with, or at least provide roadside per- Interviewees noted that less than half of the states (24) sonnel the ability to determine if the original data has been inspect motor coaches. Given that passengers are the "cargo" intercepted and different data inserted. on buses and are therefore at risk during a crash, many inter- The majority (58.3%) of jurisdictions currently are using viewees believe that more attention needs be paid to motor an automated safety algorithm to support screening activities. coaches. Of those jurisdictions using an automated safety algorithm the overwhelming majority (71.4%) are using either ISS or ISS2. A significant number (42.9%) are using SafeStat, while Technologies That Are Employed 35.7% are using a locally developed algorithm. None of the respondents indicated that they are using PRISM target files. WIM devices (94.1%) are the most frequently used screen- Also, 32% of the respondents currently have a Commercial ing tools. Automatic vehicle identification (AVI) readers Vehicle Information Window (CVIEW) system. (It must be and overdimensional detectors are being used by 41.2% of noted that 40% of the respondents indicated that they intend the respondents, while 23.5% of the jurisdictions are using to implement CVIEW in the future.) remote monitoring devices such as video surveillance cam- Given the nature of ISS and SafeStat, it is not surprising that eras. A relatively small percentage (11.8%) or respondents a combined 88% of the respondents indicated that their cur- use either automatic vehicle classification (AVC) or radio- rent tools are most effective at identifying high-risk carriers logical, biological, or chemical sensing technologies. None and vehicles. Respondents indicated that these tools are least of the respondents indicated that they use license plate read- effective at identifying high-risk drivers and cargo. ers. Of the individuals who indicated that they use electronic The response from the commercial vehicle industry con- screening technologies, 62.5% are using third-party (e.g., Pre- cerning screening algorithms is identical to that of enforce- Pass) versus 50% that reported using an in-house developed ment agencies. Industry has stated that although ISS is a good systems, with several agencies using a mix of the two. tool, it should be expanded to include driver data. The use of a specific technology appears to be very much The vast majority (83.3%) of the respondents indicated tied to the maturity of the technology. It is important to note that their inspection selection tools have not changed over the that the technology that is in use today is not geared toward past few years. Despite this, 54% of the respondents indicated identifying problem drivers--which 60% of the respondents indicated is the priority for their program. In short, the screen- that the tools they employ are not meeting the needs of the ing tools that are being used in the field are geared toward enforcement community. Several respondents commented that identifying problem vehicles or carriers as opposed to prob- they are not changing the tools they are using today because lem drivers. Although there may be many reasons for this, they do not view the other tools that are available as being any there is a clear sense that there is a disconnect between enforce- more effective. Of the respondents that had recently changed ment priorities and the tools that are available. their screening tools, 55% indicated that the new tools they Since commercial vehicle enforcement agencies are being are using are not effective. asked to do more with less there is a greater reliance on the use of technology. This reliance has then brought with it INSPECTIONS the very common theme of a need for increased data qual- ity. Improving the quality of information made available to Who Performs Them? inspectors was only second (66.7%) behind reducing crashes (87.5%) as the top priority for a respondent's inspection pro- On the whole inspections are being performed by personnel gram. The robustness of the data made available to field per- who are fully sworn police officers. 67% of the respondents sonnel is one that is critical to increasing the effectiveness of said that their inspectors have the ability to stop any vehicle. automated screening and should be thought of in terms of a 67% also said that their inspectors are fully sworn police offi- national scope. Bad data used in conjunction with high-tech cers and carry firearms. Only 17% indicated that their inspec- screening methods could result in either false negatives, thus tors are civilians with limited enforcement authority. Nearly allowing problematic drivers, carriers and vehicles to con- 35% of the respondents indicated that probable cause is tinue on, or false positives which would tend to frustrate indi- required in order to stop a commercial vehicle. viduals with good records who could possibly be pulled over When industry representatives were asked about who should for an inspection that is not necessary. In addition to the accu- be conducting inspections, several indicated that all inspec- racy issues, jurisdictions are also concerned about access to tors should receive mechanical training and implied that the data and resulting security concerns. Data security issues many of the inspectors in the field currently do not possess very much parallel data accuracy issues in that the ability of these skills. One individual indicated that he believed inspec- someone to falsify electronic data has of course a direct effect tors in New York and Michigan are well trained.