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17 CHAPTER 6 EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRENT SYSTEMS Data to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of the road- increase in the number of vehicles and drivers placed OOS" side inspection program are limited. To support this portion of when there is a recommendation to inspect the vehicle from a the analysis, the research team relied on evaluations conducted screening algorithm [Upper Great Plains Transportation Insti- by FMCSA. A primary source of this data was the "FMCSA tute, ISS-2: The Integration of the Motor Carrier Safety Status Safety Program Effectiveness Measurement: Intervention Measurement System (SAFESTAT) Into the Roadside Inspec- Model," prepared in December 2004. This model is used by tion Selection System (ISS) Final Report, January 2000, page FMCSA to assess the effectiveness of its roadside inspection 15]. Vehicles recommended for inspection by ISS were placed and traffic enforcement programs. The model considers both out of service 32.5% of the time; vehicles recommended for direct effects (e.g., vehicle/driver defects discovered during inspection by ISS-2 were placed out of service 30.4% of the inspections reducing the likelihood of crashes) and indirect time [Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, ISS-2: The effects (e.g., improved safety derived from a carrier's increased Integration of the Motor Carrier Safety Status Measurement awareness of FMCSA's safety programs) of enforcement pro- System (SAFESTAT) Into the Roadside Inspection Selection grams [John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Cen- System (ISS) Final Report, January 2000, page 11]. ter, FMCSA Safety Program Effectiveness Measurement: Intervention Model; Roadside Inspections and Traffic Enforce- INCIDENT AND ACCIDENT TRENDS ment Annual Report, December 2004, page i]. While empiri- cal data currently is not available to support all elements of the In 2003, 4,986 fatalities occurred in crashes that involved a model, it currently is the most robust source on the topic. large truck. As such, 2.31 fatalities occurred per 100 million miles driven by large trucks. While the number of fatalities IMPACT ON COMPLIANCE AND VIOLATIONS remains unacceptably high, the fatality rate for large trucks continues to decrease. Since 1983, the fatality rate associated In 2004, 3,014,907 roadside inspections were performed. Of with large truck crashes, has decreased from 4.2 fatalities per this total, approximately 2,957,827 included a driver inspec- 100 million miles driven to 2.31 fatalities per 100 million tion, 2,249,338 included a vehicle inspection, and 178,951 miles driven--almost a 50% decrease. included a hazardous material inspection. Seventy-three per- The roadside enforcement programs of federal and state cent (2,204,501) of the inspections identified a violation--27% regulators appear to have had a direct impact on commercial of the inspections resulted in an out-of-service (OOS) order. vehicle safety. FMCSA's Intervention Model estimates that Violations and OOS orders were most prevalent in vehicle in 2003 17,151 commercial vehicle crashes were avoided inspections. Vehicle inspections identified a violation 69% of through roadside inspection and traffic enforcement pro- the time and an OOS order was issued during 23% of vehicle grams. These prevented crashes resulted in 722 fatalities and inspections. These rates are dramatically higher than observed 13,062 injuries being avoided [John A. Volpe National Trans- during driver and hazardous material inspections. Thirty-six portation System Center Motor Carrier Safety Assessment percent of driver inspections identified a violation; 6.5% of Division, FMCSA Safety Program Performance Measures-- driver inspections resulted in an OOS order. Only 18.6% of Intervention Model: Roadside Inspection and Traffic Enforce- hazardous material inspections identified a violation and 5.6% ment Effectiveness Assessment, September 2002, page iii]. resulted in an OOS order. Roadside inspections alone are estimated to have prevented The 2004 statistics are consistent with the number of viola- 12,667 crashes, 534 fatalities, and 9,647 injuries in 2003 [John tions and OOS orders recorded in 2002 and 2003. Research A. Volpe National Transportation System Center Motor indicates that the use of a screening algorithm greatly increases Carrier Safety Assessment Division, FMCSA Safety Pro- the likelihood that a violation and/or an OOS order will be gram Performance Measures--Intervention Model: Roadside identified during an inspection. A study conducted by the Inspection and Traffic Enforcement Effectiveness Assessment, Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute cites a "60% September 2002, page iii].