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6 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW METHOD Vehicle Enforcement Activity in 2020: Forecast of Future Directions in Truck Safety and Security, Future The research team reviewed a variety of literature as part Truck and Bus Safety Research Directions Conference, of this effort. Sources included the following: Arlington, VA, March 2324, 2005. FMCSA Safety Program Performance Measures-- State commercial vehicle safety plans; Intervention Model: Roadside Inspection and Traffic State commercial vehicle operations business plans; Enforcement Effectiveness Assessment, John A. Volpe State Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and National Transportation System Center Motor Carrier Networks (CVISN) program plans; Safety Assessment Division, Cambridge, MA, Septem- Conference proceedings (e.g., ITS/CVO Deployment ber 2002. Showcase); Freight Analysis Framework, Federal Highway CVISN Program Review Summary Report; and Administration. Freight Analysis Framework, available U.S. DOT, FMCSA, and state program evaluations/ at: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_news/FAF/ assessments. talkingfreight_faf.htm. Integrating Freight in the Transportation Planning The research team also reviewed preliminary results from Process, Federal Highway Administration training course. a variety of related FMCSA initiatives, including the Wireless North American Free Trade Agreement: Coordinated Bus and Truck Inspection study (2005), the expanded CVISN Operational Plan Needed to Ensure Mexican Trucks initiative, and the Comprehensive Safety Analysis for 2010. Compliance with U.S. Standards, United States General The research team conducted an Internet search for rele- Accounting Office, Washington, D.C., December 2001. vant materials. While hundreds of potentially relevant papers ISS-2: The Integration of the Motor Carrier Safety Sta- were found, the number was distilled based on the following tus Measurement System (SAFESTAT) into the Roadside criteria: Inspection Selection System (ISS) Final Report, The Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, Fargo, North Papers that discussed the current and future issues asso- Dakota, January 2000. ciated with commercial motor vehicle safety, which were used to establish a baseline for current strategies and to evaluate the trends that are likely to occur in the future; DISCUSSION Papers that discussed the current and future issues associ- ated with the technology used to ensure CMV safety; and The results from the literature survey confirmed many of Research into mathematical models that can serve as the results from the enforcement survey and supporting inter- predictors of the effectiveness of inspection strategies. views. The literature review identified the key themes: DATA SOURCES Enforcement personnel are being asked to "do more" with limited resources; A complete bibliography of the final papers that were Alternative enforcement strategies are needed to accom- included in this study can be found in Appendix A. Key modate an increase in commercial motor vehicle traffic sources used in this analysis include the following: and a reduction in enforcement personnel; Alternative enforcement strategies (e.g., use of ASPEN Baron, William, Roadside Vehicle Identification Tech- inspection software) already are widely used by juris- nologies--Final Report, U.S. DOT Research & Special dictions and in some cases have been mainstreamed Program Administration, Cambridge, MA, June 20, 2001. into standard practice through federal incentives and/ Hughes, Dr. Ronald; Keppler, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Deedy, or programmatic requirements (e.g., CVISN program Conal; and Moses, Tom. The Context for Commercial requirements);

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7 New alternative enforcement strategies (e.g., wireless Data currently used in the calculation of safety ratings inspections, new technologies to identify commercial and selection algorithms need to be improved, in order vehicles at highway speeds) are being considered and to provide the intended benefits and results. actively developed by FMCSA, state agencies, and private-sector vendors; Specific data collected through the literature review are While qualitative information is limited, existing data do included in the analysis presented in later sections of the support the use of alternative technologies; and document.