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36 TABLE 3-2 Number of Highway Bridges and Percent of U.S. Total Number and Deck Area by Functional System, 2000 Functional System Urban Rural % U.S. % U.S. % U.S. % U.S. Number of Number of Total Total Deck Total Total Deck Bridges Bridges Number Area Number Area Interstate 27,882 4.7% 19.4% 27,797 4.7% 8.2% Other Arterial 63,177 10.8% 26.6% 74,796 12.7% 15.7% Collector 15,038 2.6% 2.8% 143,357 24.4% 13.5% Local 25,684 4.4% 3.6% 209,415 35.7% 10.3% Total 131,781 22.4% 52.4% 455,365 77.6% 47.6% (Source: National Bridge Inventory) accorded by automobiles and highways accounts in large part travel, and commercial vehicle contributions to the Highway for the enormous popularity of automobile travel. One hun- Trust Fund. For most programs, these funds are matched by dred million U.S. households generate more than one billion state or local governments on an 80 percent federal share to a person trips and over nine billion person miles of travel in a 20 percent state share basis. State and local governments also typical day. receive funds for their highway activities from programs ad- The highway system is also a key conduit for freight ministered by other federal agencies. Some federal funds are movement, accounting for 54 percent of total freight trans- distributed through state governments to local governments. port by weight and 83 percent by value in 1998. Between Federal agencies' direct work on highways represents only a 1993 and 1997, the weight of commodities shipped by truck small portion of federal assistance to highways. from U.S. establishments increased 20.6 percent. The aver- Most local governments are constrained by their state gov- age miles traveled by trucks grew at an average annual rate ernments with respect to revenues generated by the taxation of 4.0 percent per year during this period (USDOC Census of real and personal property. Because there are limits to the 1997). The value of goods transported by truck has increased, amount of revenue that can be derived from property taxation, while the weight of goods shipped has declined. many states share revenues with local governments. Local In addition to personal mobility and freight movement, highway-user taxation, when permitted by the state, is usually transit modes such as buses, vanpools, and demand-response in the form of local option taxes on motor fuel. With a local services share roadways with private automobiles and com- option tax, the state allows local governments to decide mercial vehicles and are affected by highway pavement and whether to levy a tax in addition to the state tax rate. traffic conditions. 3.1.4 Financing TABLE 3-3 Revenues Used for Highways, All Levels of Government, 1999 Highway financing is provided by federal, state, and local $ sources. The federal-aid highway program is a federally as- Revenue Source (millions) sisted, state-administered program that distributes federal Federal2 25,083 funds to the states for the construction and improvement (i.e., Highway-User Tax State 42,029 operation and maintenance) of urban and rural highway sys- Revenues1 Local 1,746 tems. Federal-aid highway projects are developed, contracted, Total 68,857 Road and Crossing Tolls 5,132 and supervised by the states. Roads remain under the admin- Appropriations from 17,185 istrative control of the state or local government responsible General Funds for their operation and maintenance. The federal-aid highway Property Taxes 5,809 program is financed from the proceeds of motor-fuel and Other Imposts 6,382 other highway-related excise taxes deposited in the Federal Miscellaneous Receipts 3 6,775 Bond Receipts 4 11,274 Highway Trust Fund (HTF). Table 3-3 shows revenues used Total Receipts 121,413 for highways in 1999. More than one-half of revenues used (Source: FHWA) for highways were from user-taxes (e.g., gasoline taxes). 1 Excludes amounts allocated for collection expenses and Table 3-4 shows revenues used to fund highways in 1999. The nonhighway purposes. 2 category of "law enforcement and safety" represented about Amounts reflect Highway Trust Fund revenues attributable to highway-user taxes that were expended for highways in each 9 percent of the total disbursements for highways in 1999. state, excluding territories. Funds are apportioned to states in accordance with legislated 3 Includes interest earned on Highway Trust Fund reserves. 4 formulas that include factors such as Interstate lane-miles, Excludes short-term notes and refunding bond issues.