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37 TABLE 3-4 Total Disbursements for Highways, response activities. Preparedness activities are designed to pro- All Units of Government, 1999 vide a basis to respond to an event; they include coordinating Disbursement Type 1 $ (millions) plans, predeploying resources, and providing public informa- State Highways 41,264 tion to support rapid and effective implementation of response Local measures. Examples include readying and publicizing evacu- Highways 15,712 ation routes prior to a hurricane and raising security levels on Capital Outlay Fed. Roads and critical transportation infrastructure in response to warnings of Unclassified 246 Total 57,222 increased threat levels. During the preparedness phase of State Highways 11,964 emergency management, transportation agencies typically Local support the development and revision of Maintenance and Services Highways 17,964 Fed. Roads and Unclassified 69 State emergency operations plans (EOPs); Total 29,997 Local/regional hazard-specific plans; Administration and 9,129 Mutual aid and other support agreements; miscellaneous Documentation of transportation agency roles in the ICS Highway Law 10,393 Enforcement and Safety and community Emergency Operations Center (EOC); Interest 4,349 Evacuation plans at the county, state, and multistate Bond Retirement 2 4,914 levels; Total Disbursements 116,005 Plans to manage the immediate transport of supplies to (Source: FHWA) support shelter-in-place strategies; and 1 Disbursements are classified by system on which expended, rather than by Training. expending agencies; e.g., capital outlay on local rural roads includes expenditures from federal, state and local funds. Data includes estimates. 2 Excludes short-term notes and refunding bond issues. Preparedness activities can also include participating in exercises and coordinating and planning meetings, as well as activities designed to establish and improve interagency and public communication before, during, and after an 3.1.5 General Organization event. Awareness activities include gathering and reporting infor- Publicly owned highways and bridges are those owned by mation on potential emergency events, as well as informing the federal, state, and local governments. States own almost agencies and the general public about the occurrence of an 20 percent of the nation's road system. State governments in- event. Event warnings or alerts can include notifications that a clude a DOT or equivalent responsible for road development major event may occur, either through weather forecasting and maintenance. The inclusion of law enforcement author- (e.g., natural disaster), heightened readiness at the local/ ity within the DOT varies among states. The federal govern- regional level (e.g., special event, possible strike, or civil un- ment has control over about 3 percent of the network, pri- rest), or the DHS's Homeland Security Advisory System. marily in national parks and forests and on Native American Whether warning is available or not, the identification of the reservations. More than 77 percent of U.S. roads are owned occurrence of an event or series of events with the potential to by local governments (e.g., counties, cities, and towns). disrupt the transportation system must be provided. Among the awareness activities performed by transportation agencies are 3.1.6 Operations Use of surveillance systems to detect indicators of a po- tential emergency, an emergency that is occurring, or an Each state pays for the maintenance, law enforcement, and emergency that has occurred; and construction of highways within its boundaries, and each Verification by field personnel that an emergency event state attempts to ensure receipt of taxes for using its high- is occurring or has occurred and communication of rel- ways. States establish vehicle safety regulations, including li- evant information to all responding agencies. censing requirements and speed limits. Each state can also establish width and weight regulations, within certain federal Response activities cover a wide range of tasks designed guidelines, for trucks that operate within its jurisdiction. to minimize loss of life and property as a result of an emer- gency event. Transportation agencies implement a number of 3.1.7 Emergency Plans and Organization response activities during an emergency event, including the following: The state DOT, along with the state emergency manage- ment office, develops emergency plans that include highways. Advising law enforcement on access for transportation Emergency planning includes preparedness, awareness, and personnel assessing damage;