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38 Performing damage assessment responsibilities for af- general areas: (1) operating the transportation system before, fected transportation system elements; during, and after an emergency event; (2) delivering infor- Coordinating assessments and decisions on the opera- mation on transportation system status to other public agen- tional capabilities of the transportation system; cies and the general public before, during, and after an event; Making decisions regarding closures, restrictions, and and (3) providing logistical support to other public agencies priority repairs; and the general public. Providing assistance in determining any potential haz- ards at the scene; Initiating traffic management operations and control 3.1.8 Historical Emergency Actions strategies; There is historical experience in taking emergency actions Assigning personnel to EOC(s) to help coordinate to alter highway use for evacuations because of natural disaster response and recovery efforts; events such as hurricanes and floods. During these events, in- Addressing first responder transportation needs; bound entrance ramps can be closed with gates and in-bound Providing field support for emergency responders, inte- lanes are reduced or entirely eliminated and redesignated as grated through ICS and communicated and coordinated out-bound lanes. In the southeastern coastal cites where there with the traffic management center (TMC); are greater hurricane risks, evacuation routes are displayed in Assigning transportation resources to move materials, places ranging from local newspapers, to the internet, media personnel, and supplies as requested by responders; broadcasts, and telephone book community information sec- Supporting hazardous materials containment assess- tions. The evacuating state DOT coordinates activities with ments in coordination with the ICS; and adjacent states, providing them with estimates of evacuation Attending briefings at incident sites on situations, traffic flow. incident action plans, response objectives, and strategy. After the Northridge earthquake in 1994, California's DOT responded by assessing highway infrastructure condi- Recovery activities are concentrated on restoring essential tion, determining its soundness, and developing alternative services following an emergency event. Activities include routes where necessary. In addition to modifying highway implementing plans to reopen closed segments of the trans- traffic flow and assessing highway soundness, the state DOT portation system to allow the return of evacuated persons to has provided trucks, personnel, and sand bags as requested their communities and rerouting traffic to ensure that suffi- by incident command centers in response to various emer- cient capacity to meet regional demand is provided. Other gencies. recovery-related activities performed by transportation agen- cies include 3.1.9 Highway System Summary Matrix Initiating priority clean-up, repair, and restoration activities; Table 3-5 summarizes highway operational sequences, Coordinating roadway clearance activities; traffic flow, and historical emergency response. Table 3-6 Prioritizing recovery operations and performing summarizes highway control options, operational limits, and emergency repairs in the disaster area; existing authority. Coordinating with other jurisdictions that are managing, supporting, or affected by the repair activities; 3.2 THE MARITIME SYSTEM Assisting in the design and implementation of alternate transportation services; 3.2.1 Definitions Coordinating with efforts to restore utilities; Supporting decontamination of hazardous materials For this project, the U.S. maritime transportation system contractors and clean-up crews; (MTS) is defined in accordance with the U.S. Coast Guard Assisting state and local governments in determining (USCG) and the Army Corps of Engineers as consisting of the most viable transportation networks to, from, and 95,000 miles of coast line, including the Great Lakes and in- within the disaster area and regulating the use of those land waterways, with more than 361 ports. U.S. waters are all networks; waters extending from 12 nautical miles off the coast inland. Providing highway clearances and waivers required to State waters are waters contained solely within one state that expedite transportation of high-priority materials; and are never navigated commercially or were not created by the Providing public information/traveler alerts on trans- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. portation status by monitoring re-entry routes. Coastal trade is defined in the Jones Act as picking up cargo in one U.S. port for delivery to another U.S. port. Liner In summary, the scope and responsibilities of transporta- trade defines the movement of cargo vessels that adhere to tion agencies regarding emergency response include three a set schedule of port visits and departures. Tramp trade

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TABLE 3-5 Highway Operational Sequences, Traffic Flow, and Historical Emergency Response Operational Sequences Traffic Flow Historical Emergency Response Traffic Types Traffic Patterns Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Personal: Private passenger Normal: A mix of vehicle Rush Hours: Toward urban Eliminate Access: Prohibit Same as short term and: cars and light duty trucks for types and travel demand. areas, schools, and work vehicles from accessing site. personal travel. Peak demand Constraining Emergencies: centers. Reroute Traffic: Establish Repair/Construct roads and during morning and General traffic reduced Off-Peak: To and from routes around site. bridges. afternoon commute hours during severe weather (e.g., schools, shopping, Establish Evacuation with travel during weekdays snow, hurricane). In extreme entertainment, etc. Route: Identify evacuation often higher than during cases, prohibit travel on Emergencies: Route vehicles routes to provide vehicles weekends. public roads to facilitate generally away from with routes away from scene. Freight: Privately owned emergency equipment access. emergency area; first Other Options: Modify heavy duty trucks hauling Expanding Emergencies: responders toward traffic control to provide freight. Truck volume Use evacuation routes to emergency area. access to emergency vehicles generally uniform throughout expand exit capacity. Modify (e.g., traffic signal priority); the day and generally lower traffic control devices (e.g., provide traveler information on weekends than weekdays. traffic signals) to manage regarding alternative routes. demand. Reroute traffic to Reroute: Modify routes as facilitate emergency needed. response. 39