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40 TABLE 3-6 Highway Control Options, Operational Limits, and Existing Authority Control Options Operational Limits Existing Authority Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Options Reroute traffic Same as short Reroute traffic--limited Same as short term and: Reroute traffic--state/local Change traffic term and: feasible routes public safety agencies signalization Implement Change traffic Implement evacuation Change traffic Institute reverse lanes evacuation signalization--hardware plans--coordination of signals--state/local Distribute traveler plans and software limits routes and information transportation agency information Institute reverse across jurisdictions Institute reverse Execute incident lanes--geometry and Fuel Access--suspended lanes--state transportation management plans access limits or delayed fuel deliveries agency Distribute traveler may limit highway access. Distribute traveler information--accuracy information--state/local and availability transportation agency Execute emergency Execute incident plans--limited equipment management and staff plans--state/local transportation agency defines the movement of vessels that comply with specific cruise ships) and 75 percent of the cargo ships operating in delivery orders. Such vessels may remain at anchor for ex- U.S. waters. However the flag of the vessel no longer repre- tended periods of time awaiting their next transport order. sents the nation of the vessel owners. Most of the cruise ships Types of maritime vessels include visiting our ports are actually owned by a U.S. corporation; for example Miami-based Carnival Cruise Lines is the Foreign vessels. Such vessels are prohibited by the largest cruise line in the world. Although not as dramatic in Jones Act from participating in coastal trade. These ves- percentage, the number of foreign tankers entering the U.S. sels are built, substantially modified, owned, controlled, that are actually owned by U.S. corporations is also high. or crewed by non-U.S. personnel or businesses. Table 3-7, describes the vessels with a U.S. flag registry. U.S.-flagged vessels. These are defined as vessels built, Because of many economic factors, the actual U.S. flag controlled, crewed, and primarily maintained by U.S. fleet has become primarily one of tugs, barges, excursion personnel or business. Certain exemptions to this crite- boats, and ferries, with a few deep draft cargo vessels serv- rion are routinely included in congressional legislation ing U.S. states and possessions (e.g., Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, for specific vessels. and Puerto Rico). Ferries. These are vessels designed to transport passen- The major U.S. components of the MTS are its port and gers or passengers and vehicles on fairly short (less than the inland waterway vessels. Table 3-8 lists the top 15 ports a day) scheduled routes. Most ferries operating in U.S. in the United States. based on total cargo, foreign trade cargo, waters are U.S. flagged. and containers. Bulk cargo (e.g., coal, oil, and grain) is worth Cruise ships. These are designed to transport passengers far less per ton than containerized cargo; thus cargo tonnage for longer periods of time. Most cruise ships are foreign alone does not reflect relative economic value. Table 3-9 lists vessels. the value and weight of foreign freight cargo based on cargo Liners. These are freight vessels that carry cargo ac- vessel type, where liners are largely transporting containers cording to a fixed scheduled of routes and port calls. (i.e., ready for intermodal transport). Most containerized and some breakbulk cargo fall in this category. Tramps. These are chartered freight vessels that carry 3.2.3 System Use dry cargo (mainly dry bulks such as coal, grain, and fer- According to the USCG, more than 95 percent of the over- tilizers, as well as steel and, in some cases, automo- seas trade that comes in or out of the United States moves by biles). ship. U.S. ports and waterways handle more than 2 billion Tankers. These are vessels that carry bulk liquid cargo, tons of both domestic and foreign commerce, including the such as crude oil. daily importation of 9 million barrels of oil. Cargo moving through the MTS contributes more than $742 billion to the 3.2.2 System Size and Modes U.S. gross domestic product and creates employment for more than 13 million individuals. It is misleading to define the U.S. MTS simply by report- Ninety percent of all equipment and supplies for Operation ing the number of U.S. flagged vessels. An average of 7,500 Desert Storm was shipped from U.S. strategic ports via U.S. in- foreign ships call on U.S. ports each year. These foreign land and coastal waterways. Commercial transportation assets ships account for 95 percent of the passenger ships (mainly decrease the cost and environmental impact of meeting military