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41 TABLE 3-7 Summary of the United States Shallow and Deep Draft Vessels by Vessel Type for 2001 Vessel Type Shallow Draft Vessels Deep Draft Vessels % Total Average Average % Total Average Average Vessel Type Number Number of Type Draft Age of Type Draft Age Vessels (total) 2 39,945 96.2 9 20 1,557 3.8 21 20 Self-Propelled (total) 7,615 89.7 8 26 871 10.3 23 21 Dry Cargo (total) 732 78.7 7 24 198 21.3 31 24 Dry Bulk 6 8.2 11 36 67 91.8 30 28 Containership 0 - - - 68 100.0 37 19 General Cargo 209 86.0 9 30 34 14.0 29 21 Specialized 517 94.7 6 22 9 2 5.3 18 27 Passenger 724 99.2 5 23 6 0.8 21 20 Offshore Support 1,465 93.5 8 19 102 6.5 17 7 Tanker 23 19.2 9 44 97 80.8 40 21 Towboat 4,671 90.9 8 29 468 9.1 17 22 Non-Self-Propelled 32,327 97.9 9 18 685 2.1 19 20 (total) Dry Barge (total) 28,474 98.6 9 18 416 1.4 18 18 Dry Covered 13,600 98.6 9 16 192 1.4 20 11 Dry Open 8,649 99.2 9 16 68 0.8 17 34 Lash/Seabee 1,184 100.0 9 22 0 - - - Deck 4,927 97.6 8 23 120 2.4 16 21 Other Dry 3 114 76.0 9 25 36 24.0 16 19 Tank Barge (total) 3,853 93.5 10 23 269 6.5 21 23 Single Hull 587 84.5 10 32 108 15.5 21 26 Double Hull 2,642 97.2 10 21 75 2.8 23 16 Other Tank 4 624 87.9 9 24 86 12.1 21 25 (Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) 1 Based on the loaded draft of the vessel; shallow draft is defined as less than or equal to 14 feet and deep draft is greater than 14 feet. 2 Total is greater than the sum because of 4 unclassified vessels and 86 vessels with unknown draft; includes vessels available for operation. 3 Includes dry cargo barges that may be open or covered, railroad car, pontoon, RO-RO, container, or convertible. 4 Includes tank barges that may be double sided only, double bottom only, or not elsewhere included. transportation requirements. Ships and barges have the fewest berships in 8,000 yacht and boat clubs. Millions of people accidental spills or collisions of all forms of transportation. annually use commercial passenger vessels that provide sight- They routinely load and unload millions of barrels of petroleum seeing, excursion, dining, gaming, wind jamming, whale and tons of coal, grain, chemicals, and other essential products watching, and nature cruises. throughout the United States, from Alaska to Maine. Ferries and high-speed vessels increasingly provide an envi- The inland portion of the MTS includes nearly 12,000 ronmentally sound alternative to cars. Ferryboat riders are often miles of commercially navigable inland and coastal water- commuters. The largest capacity ferry systems are in the states ways and more than 630 million tons of cargo per year. Mov- of Washington and New York, although nearly every state has ing the same volume over land would require 6.3 million rail a private or government-run ferry service. In Puget Sound, fer- carloads or 25 million truckloads. ries carry 23 million passengers each year; in Alaska, ferries are In 1997, the cruise passenger industry spent $6.6 billion on essentially the highways to and from homes and businesses. goods and services in the United States, which generated Private ferries must turn a profit while taxpayers subsidize pub- 176,000 jobs and had an estimated total economic impact of lic systems such as in New York and Washington. Table 3-10 $11.6 billion. In 2003, it is estimated that there were approxi- summarizes the U.S. ferry fleet passenger capacity. mately 163 foreign-flag passenger vessels operating from U.S. ports, each carrying 1,000 to 5,000 persons on board, and all 3.2.4 Financing combined, carrying more than 6.5 million passengers annually. About 78 million Americans participated in recreational In the United States, most vessel and marine terminal costs boating in 1997, using 16 million boats of all types and spend- are privately funded. The federal government maintains some ing $19 billion for new and used boats, accessories, and mem- infrastructure, such as vessel locks on the inland waterways,