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43 trucks, and railroads. Ports build and maintain cruise remain at anchor for considerable periods of time in a port terminals for the growing cruise passenger industry. after they have made their delivery and are waiting for an- · In addition to maritime functions, port authority activities other order. may also include airports, bridges, tunnels, commuter rail Tug and barge trade is primarily conducted by U.S. systems, inland river or shallow draft barge terminals, in- flagged vessels. Barges today may be as large as ships (500 dustrial parks, foreign trade zones, world trade centers, to 700 feet). They carry all forms of cargo. For coastal ports, terminal or shortline railroads, shipyards, dredging, mari- their primary use is for the movement of oil and to a lesser nas and other public recreational facilities. extent intermodal containers. On the inland waterways they · Public ports also play a critical role in our national se- are moved in large numbers (6 to 48) lashed together. They curity, peace-keeping, and humanitarian efforts around are used to move oil, grain, ore, coal, and other dry bulk the world. In particular, ports support the mobilization, cargo. The inland barge trade is both scheduled and on de- deployment, and resupply of U.S. military forces. mand. The oil trade on the coast is primarily on demand · Ports on the coasts and inland waterways provide 3,214 whereas the container barge trade is run on a schedule. berths for deep draft ships and transfer cargo and passen- Passenger vessel (other than cruise ships) and ferry boat gers through 1,941 public and private marine terminals." trade is primarily conducted by U.S. flagged vessels. Sched- ules are set for regional demand, many times varying by sea- The remaining ports in the United States are either pri- son. Ferry boat routes are generally short in length (less than vately run by commercial operators or managed by local mu- 2 hours). Ferry boats are run by both private and public enti- nicipalities. ties. Passenger vessels cater to sightseeing, dinner cruises, Overall MTS is more managed than organized. The USCG and ecotourism (e.g., whale watching), and their voyages are and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are responsible for the generally less than 8 hours long. Passenger vessels are usu- safe operation of the MTS. The USCG has jurisdiction over ally run by private entities. vessels in U.S. waters and can order them to move or conduct Cruise ship trade is primarily conducted by foreign ves- specified actions deemed necessary for the safety of a port. sels. These ships are home-ported in about a dozen U.S. ports All maritime and waterfront facilities are also under USCG and make port calls in a number of other ports. Most of these jurisdiction in regard to safety and security. Additionally, ships depart on the weekends for 3- to 14-day voyages and local authorities may have some shared jurisdiction over ma- return to their homeport to begin the cycle again. Cruise ship rine and waterfront facilities. schedules are published about a year in advance and are set The placement of maritime facilities, cruise ship opera- to capture the planned market share of cruise ship customers. tions, and marine services is driven by national and interna- Recreational boats are numerous, are owned and operated tional economics and changes continually. by the public, and range in size from small canoes to 100- plus-foot-long yachts. All commercial vessels are under the control of a licensed 3.2.6 Operations mariner. Each such vessel is required to carry certain safety equipment. In addition certain waterfront facilities and most There are many ways to divide operations within the MTS. commercial vessels are being required to develop and imple- The most appropriate way for this project is to break it into ment security plans by an international convention (SOLAS six specific modes as follows: ISPS) and national law (Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002). These plans basically require that the vessels and ter- · Scheduled liner trade, minals have reasonable security to prevent unauthorized per- · Bulk ship trade, sonnel from gaining access and to ensure that contingency · Tug and barge trade, plans exist for specified events such as bomb threats and · Passenger vessels and ferry boat trade, hostage situations. · Cruise ship trade, and · Recreational boating. 3.2.7 Emergency Plans and Organization Scheduled liner trade consists primarily of intermodal container vessels that are 500 to 1,100 feet in length. They In the event of a threat to the MTS, the USCG is responsi- have crews of 12 to 30 and are mostly foreign flagged. Their ble for managing its operation. The USCG's authority in schedules are set by their international corporate offices to responding to a threat to the MTS is found in 33 CFR 6-160 maximize revenue. These vessels will seldom be in any one and includes the authority to control any vessel or waterfront port for more than a day. facility, close off or restrict access to a waterway to anyone, Bulk ship trade consists of ships designed to carry oil, and even order the destruction of a vessel. Each portion of the chemicals in bulk, or dry products (e.g., grain, ore, or coal). MTS is part of a USCG Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone. These vessels generally operate in the tramp trade although Each COTP has an area security committee formed to use the some do have regularly scheduled routes. These ships may knowledge of all parts of the MTS from government to labor