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44 within a specified area having responsibility for an area secu- 3.3 THE RAILWAY SYSTEM rity plan to deal with possible security threats. The area secu- rity plans explain how security threats will be managed and 3.3.1 Definitions who will be in charge. The USCG is in charge initially; how- ever federal emergency plans can shift that responsibility to Freight rail statistics exclude passenger, commuter, and other agencies in response to certain threats (e.g., weapons of excursion railroads, subways and mass transit systems, and mass destruction). When an incident or security threat mate- freight railroads that operate solely on behalf of an individ- rializes, these committees and their plans are used to rapidly ual company and do not interchange traffic with other carri- disseminate information to those with a need to know. ers. Miles of road is the aggregate length of railway exclud- In addition to the area security plans, each COTP main- ing yard tracks and sidings and does not include parallel tains plans for managing natural disasters and regional emer- miles of road with two or more tracks. The miles of road op- gencies. These plans are developed locally by the COTP and erated total is greater than the mileage owned total because vary in complexity because of the perceived threat and avail- more than one railroad operates some railways through track- ability of resources. age rights. Miles of road owned can be calculated as the dif- Implementation of the Maritime Transportation Security ference between miles of road operated and miles of road Act (MTSA) 2002, falls under the USCG, which, in 2003, with trackage rights. published new security plans and security officer regulations Railroad companies are classified into five groups: in 33 CFR Parts 101 to 106. All vessels in waters under U.S. jurisdiction are subject to USCG Area Security Plans, as de- scribed in 33 CFR 103. Area Security Plans include vessel Class I. Railroads with an operating revenue of at least identification and navigation requirements. Further require- $266.7 million in 2001. In 2002, the minimum revenue ments vary with the area. Designation of vessel types for for this category was $272 million. These carriers oper- which more stringent national security regulations apply is ate in many states, with most of their operations for based on determinations of relative risk, which includes both long-haul, high-density intercity traffic. This class rep- the likelihood of an event and the magnitude of the effects of resents 1 percent of the number of U.S. freight railroads, an event. In general, depending on a vessel's gross weight, 68 percent of the industry's operated mileage, 88 per- cargo types, and number of passengers, it may be required to cent of the industry's employees, and 92 percent of the conduct vulnerability assessments and to develop USCG- industry's freight revenues. approved security plans that may include emergency re- Regional. Railroads with at least 350 route miles and/or sponse aspects such as passenger evacuation. revenue between $40 million and the Class I minimum. Railroads in this class are linehaul, and typically oper- ate 400 to 650 miles of road in a region located in two 3.2.8 Historical Emergency Actions to four states. Local linehaul. Railroads that operate less than 350 During the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, ferry miles of road and have annual revenues less than $40 boats and other commercial vessels shuttled thousands of million. These carriers generally perform point-to- people from Manhattan to New Jersey, Long Island, and point transportation services over short distances. Staten Island. After 9/11, temporary ferry lines were estab- Most operate less than 50 miles of road and serve a lished to allow commuters to get to work despite damage to single state. certain railway systems (for example the PATH trains into Switching and terminal (S&T). Railroads that primarily lower Manhattan). Many large tugboats are equipped with provide switching and/or terminal services, rather than firefighting monitors and often assist in suppressing maritime point-to-point services. These carriers pick up and de- fires. All commercial vessels are equipped with VHF FM ra- liver cars between one or more connecting linehaul car- dios and are required to monitor certain channels for infor- riers within a specified area. mational and emergency broadcasts. The maritime industry Foreign-owned. Railroads owned by one of two Cana- has a proud history of lending assistance during emergencies, dian companies: Canadian National Railway and including participating in search and rescue operations. Canadian Pacific Railway. Canadian company opera- tions in the United States can be classified as any of the 3.2.9 System Summary Matrix above four classifications. Inclusion of Canadian com- pany U.S. operations in U.S. rail statistics varies de- Table 3-11 summarizes maritime operational sequences, pending on the reporting source. Tables 3-13 through traffic flow, and historical emergency response. Table 3-12 3-15 provide information on the relative size of U.S., summarizes maritime control options, operational limits, and Canadian, and Mexican rail operations in the United existing authority. States.

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TABLE 3-11 Maritime Operational Sequences, Traffic Flow, and Historical Emergency Response Operational Traffic Flow Historical Emergency Response Sequences Traffic Types Traffic Patterns Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Passenger Vessels, Normal: A mix of workers, Routine: To and from Stop Service: At event sites, Reroute service Cruise Ships, and students, shoppers, tourists, and specified marine terminals. at suspicious sites, and as Evacuate people Ferry Boats: Operate others on fixed routes, on or near The difference between peak directed. Suspend fares nearly exclusively on schedule. Peak demand during the and off-peak is generally Reroute Service: Around Inform passengers present schedules. morning and evening hours, and only the frequency of known emergency site, Dedicate vessels to first Passengers or Cargo during some events. transits. suspicious areas, danger responders Accumulate: At the Constraining Emergencies: Emergency: Vessels can be zones Modify other vessels marine terminal prior to Reduced or suspended service rerouted to any pier or Suspend Fares: During area for passengers the vessels arrival. during severe weather emergencies waterfront with adequate evacuations to reduce traffic Rent vessels from Ferry boats experience (e.g., hurricane). draft for the vessel to operate during spiked demand outside region high peak service Expanding Emergencies: Expand assuming passengers can (special events). during the weekdays in service during natural or manmade access the vessel. Other Options: Inform the morning and disasters (e.g., earthquake, terrorist passengers of travel afternoon (rush hour). attack, blackouts, flood). alternatives, discourage use, provide special service. 45

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46 TABLE 3-12 Maritime Control Options, Operational Limits, and Existing Authority Control Options Operational Limits Existing Authority Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Options Reroute Service Same as short term and: Stop or Reroute Same as short term and: Stop/Reroute Service--federal, local, and state Evacuate People Rent/Borrow vessels Service--limited Borrow/rent government. Suspend Fares and operators choices Vessels/operators--lack Suspend Fares--local and state government. Inform Modify Vessels to Suspend of funding, stock, Add/Refocus Service--local and state Passengers carry passengers Fares--overcrowding operators government. Dedicate Vessels Help from Add/Refocus Receive Assigned Substitute Service--local, state, and federal to FR Employers Service--lack of Assistance--lack of government. Use other (staggered work resources resources, commitment, First Responder Help--first responder vessels to carry hours), First Responder experience organization, local and state government. passengers Media (inform Help--different: Modify Media Assistance--industry public) command structure, Vessels--resources, time Borrow/Rent Vessels/operators--local, state, State and Local culture, operations Employers, Media, State and federal government Government (special Media Assistance-- and Local Modify Vessels--local, state, and federal exemption--waiver inadequate Government--lack of government. of hour restrictions coordination, coverage, control, not uniformly Employer Assistance--industry on vessel operators) frequency, etc. applied, etc. Special Exemption--local and state Evacuate Vessels and Fuel Access--may be government Terminals--lead time limited due to delayed or Evacuate--first responder organization, local suspended shipments. and state government.