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5 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 OBJECTIVES Introduction to the fundamentals of CBR events, in- cluding the general types of events; categorization of the The overall objective of this project was to develop a guide threats; and general introduction to the doses, detection, to help transportation managers develop transportation re- and decontamination of these threat agents. sponse options in the case of an extreme event. This report is Specific address of the information needed for emer- one part of this project and supports the overall project goal gency response decisions during a CBR event and the by providing background information to assist in transporta- transportation system vulnerabilities and actions for tion planning for chemical, biological, and radiological consequence minimization of CBR events. (CBR) events. This document describes the key features of General description of each of the primary transporta- CBR threats, and transportation responses to these threats; tion modes on a national level including system size, and provides an overview of the primary modes in the trans- use, financing, and general organization. portation system (i.e., highway, maritime, rail, aviation, and General description of each of the primary transportation mass transit) including emergency response organization. modes emergency plans and organization, and historical emergency actions. 1.2 AUDIENCE 1.4 LIMITATIONS This report is directed primarily toward those in the emer- gency response community with a collective interest in trans- The information in this report is general, with some spe- portation incident management (i.e., emergency response). cific examples. Although the concepts presented should be General managers, middle to upper-level managers, transit helpful in dealing with a CBR event, the details of the spe- security, and community emergency response managers con- cific threat agent and the scenario of its release (including stitute the target audience for this report. location, quantity, and meteorology) will dictate the most appropriate specific responses. 1.3 SCOPE The scope of this report includes the following: Extreme events involving CBR agents where extreme events are defined as those that may have at least a city- wide effect.