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50 the AAR. The facility is for both freight and passenger rail- Rapid decision-making in response to emergencies has al- roads, with a focus on safety, reliability, and productivity. In ways been part of the rail system for dealing with more com- addition to test track, it operates a training center for emer- mon emergencies such as natural disasters (e.g., drought and gency personnel responding to transportation accidents in- snowstorms). Rapid decisions regarding emergency changes volving hazardous materials. in security and operations are typically made at a high (i.e., CEO) level. Rotating round-the-clock shifts of top decision- makers are typically employed so that emergency decisions 3.3.6 Operations can always be made quickly. Railroad freight runs on closed guideways largely con- trolled by train dispatchers. The dispatchers direct locomotive 3.3.7 Emergency Plans and Organization engineers on direction and speed. Cargo waybills (i.e., agree- ments to haul) are largely electronic, allowing each shipment Shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, to be easily tracked by its listed content and location. En- the railroad industry established the Railroad Security Task crypted data are used to transfer information on shipments Force through the AAR. The task force included 150 railroad that are critical from a security perspective. Hazardous mate- industry representatives and former government security and rials and munitions shipments, regardless of mode of trans- intelligence personnel and sought to develop a comprehen- port, are governed by separate federal regulations that require sive risk analysis and security plan based on CIA and compliance with safety-related standards and carrying a man- national intelligence community best practices. The resulting ifest of hazardous cargo. All rail cars and containers passed plan addresses hazardous materials, operations, infrastruc- between different companies (i.e., most shipments) are re- ture, information technology and communications, and quired to have two radio frequency identification tags that military movements in the railroad system. This plan uses a allow electronic identification of the car's history, ownership, database created to prioritize railroad assets, assess railroad and contents. Thus, while personnel picking up and trans- vulnerabilities and terrorism threats, calculate risks, and porting cars or containers may not know the cargo contents, identify risk-reduction countermeasures. Alert levels and ac- information on a particular car can be readily obtained when tions to be taken at each level have been defined and the role needed. After a car enters a railroad yard, its location is di- of the AAR operations center and railroad alert network has rected and tracked by the yardmaster. Overall, unlike other been delineated. freight transportation modes, the rail industry can relatively Railroad Security Task Force findings have led to an in- easily provide information on the locations of all its ship- crease in employee security awareness and training, and em- ments and cars through a single point (i.e., American Associ- ployee records have been compared with FBI terrorist lists. ation of Railroads and its subsidiary, Railinc, which maintains There have also been increases in the tracking and inspection an extensive databases on rail activities). Although some of hazmat and munitions movements; security of railroad smaller railroads are not part of AAR, these railroads typically physical assets; random inspections; spot identification transfer cars/containers to and from AAR members, along checks; cybersecurity procedures; coordination with Military with origin and destination information, enabling good esti- Transportation Management Command; and the use of en- mations of car locations. GPS technology has been installed cryption technology for selected data communications. on some locomotives and rail cars (particularly those carrying Based on task force recommendations, the rail industry frozen goods) for more precise locations. Tracking the loca- has developed plans for immediate response to any threats in tion of a shipment does not ensure that the contents have re- the transportation network. Furthermore, a round-the-clock mained unchanged. operations center has been established at the AAR to coordi- Recently implemented rules require land freight trans- nate industry-wide rail freight security. The AAR alert net- porters to notify U.S. Customs of cargo contents at least 4 work operates from an industrial security clearance room, hours before crossing national borders. In contrast, ocean allowing constant and secured communications between fed- transporters must provide cargo contents lists at least 24 eral authorities and railroad companies. In the event of a ter- hours before port arrival. Shipping containers and freight rorist threat, the AAR alert network would communicate cars may be initially inspected (x-rayed) at receiving with all Class I carriers in the United States and Canada and ports. An electronic targeting system scores all cars that with many regional carriers. enter the United States based on their ownership and con- The rail industry has conducted war game exercises to fur- tents and so forth and identifies those to receive intensi- ther identify potential problems. These exercises may help au- fied inspections. Lower scores (i.e., less critical security thorities delineate circumstances under which it is better to threats) are given to Customs-Trade Partnership Against keep traffic moving rather than halting it and providing a Terrorism (CTPAT) members, who have previously pro- standing target, recognize the domino effects of late or can- vided the U.S. Bureau of Customs with extensive com- celled shipments (e.g., chemicals to maintain drinking water pany and shipment information. sanitation), and assess capabilities for population evacuations