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51 with boxcars. The Railroad Security Task Force vulnerability needs for such an accident (nuclear or chemical) have been and assessment includes relative assessments of attack effective- are being considered by the rail industry. ness on tunnels, bridges, track, and shipments. Concerns with Another instructional historical rail accident occurred in shipment attacks may include theft of shipments for illegal 1979 near the town of Mississauga, Ontario. A railroad car sale or use, releases and explosions of hazardous cargo (e.g., undercarriage failure caused a propane tank explosion fol- chemicals or munitions), and contamination or poisoning of lowed by ruptures of cars containing chlorine and other food shipments. This vulnerability assessment information is chemicals, resulting in an extremely hot and acrid fire. More considered highly sensitive, along with the steps implemented than 210,000 residents were evacuated from the area. This at each alert level and thus these details are not presented in accident is a model of the type of situation that can result this report. when trains contain a mix of different types of cargo (as they typically do). Some types of cargo can seriously diminish the ability to respond. In this case, the presence of chlorine gas 3.3.8 Historical Emergency Actions prevented fire fighting personnel from being able to respond for a significant amount of time. Immediately after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the railroad industry worked closely with local, state, and federal authorities to increase inspections and patrols, 3.3.9 System Summary Matrix often with its own police forces. Freight traffic in the New York area was briefly suspended and, throughout the coun- Table 3-22 summarizes railway operational sequences, try, access to key facilities was restricted and operational traffic flow, and historical emergency responses. Table 3-23 practices were modified as antiterrorist measures. As clean- summarizes railway control options, operational limits, and up efforts of the September 11 attacks began, gondola cars existing authorities. were donated to assist with hauling debris. Other types of as- sistance the rail industry has provided during emergencies in- clude hauling needed supplies free of charge and increasing 3.4 THE AVIATION SYSTEM on-duty staff to meet emergency shipment needs. 3.4.1 Definitions At the start of U.S. military action in Afghanistan, in con- sultation with federal security agencies, the railroad industry The aviation industry comprises aircraft; their operators; maintained a 72-hour "Red Alert" status, with associated the people and goods transported; airports and supporting additional security protocols. Shipments of hazardous mate- infrastructure; and the communications, navigation, and con- rials were suspended during this alert, which provided expe- trol infrastructures that make reliable air transportation pos- rience with the repercussions of shipment delays. AAR sible. The aviation industry consists of several major sectors, coordination with the Chlorine Institute, the American or categories of operations, that have distinctly different roles Chemistry Council, and the Fertilizer Institute has greatly in a threat environment. These sectors are increased in recent years to improve both security and emer- gency planning. Overall, since the terrorist attacks of Sep- Air carriers, which transport people; tember 11, the rail industry has made great strides to improve Cargo carriers, which include air carriers in addition to freight security and emergency planning in excess of gov- freight airlines; ernment requirements. Historically, the rail industry has The business use sector, which includes operators such provided great assistance during emergencies. The industry's as mining companies, power transmission companies, financial stability and related well-maintained infrastructure and oil exploration, charter aircraft, and individuals facilitates this assistance. operating aircraft for business purposes; Historical rail accidents have been studied and considered The agricultural use sector (dusting and spraying); this in the rail industry emergency plans. For example, in July sector is a sub-sector of business aircraft; 2001, a railroad accident inside the Howard Street tunnel in The corporate transport sector, which includes many Baltimore caused chemical tank cars and cars loaded with minor and major corporate fleets operated to transport paper products to burn for 3 days. The accident was studied by employees; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a worst-case The air taxi industry (transport on demand), which is model of the type of accident that could befall a shipment or quite large and diverse; nuclear waste by railroad. The conclusions were that nuclear The public use sector, which includes Emergency waste containers would have survived the fire, but these results Medical Services (EMS) operations, forest service and have become highly controversial. This case is an example of forest fire suppression, law enforcement, and the the type of situation (whether involving deliberate attack or of USCG air fleet; and accidental origin) that could occur, whether nuclear materials The pleasure flying sector. are involved or not. The evacuation requirements and response (text continues on page 54)

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52 TABLE 3-22 Railway Operational Sequences, Traffic Flow, and Historical Emergency Response Operational Traffic Flow Historical Emergency Response Sequences Traffic Types Traffic Patterns Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Freight: Privately Normal: Mix of many cargo Normal Operations: Rail Suspend Transport: A 72- Same as short term and: owned railway, types, typically for longer distance traffic greatest in larger hour suspension was applied Repair/ construct railway locomotives, and freight transport; some hazardous cities. when the U.S. invasion of Increase deliveries to cars. Shipments are materials and munitions. Emergencies: Deliveries of Afghanistan began. area in need tracked from the Constraining Emergencies: emergency supplies and Reroute/Delay Deliveries: Dedicate equipment to agreement to ship until Traffic may be reduced during provision of boxcars for Deliveries to the New York emergency assistance delivery. severe weather (e.g., snow, evacuations. area were briefly halted as a Emergency Deliveries: Passenger: Intercity hurricane). Traffic has been halted result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Transported hay without passenger travel for up to 72 hours under high-level charge during droughts, exclusively by Amtrak security alerts. donated gondola cars for (federally owned), Expanding Emergencies: 9/11 debris removal. commuter, and within- Delivery of emergency supplies city passenger transport and use for evacuations. addressed under Mass Transit.

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TABLE 3-23 Railway Control Options, Operational Limits, and Existing Authority Control Options Operational Limits Existing Authority Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Options Suspend Transport: Same as short term and: Suspend Same as short term and: Suspend Transport--industry apply to all or selected Repair/construct Transport--public health Repair/construct Reroute/Delay deliveries--industry freight. railway dangers with suspensions railway--financing, need Emergency deliveries--industry Reroute/Delay Increase deliveries to of 3+ days for water land ownership for new Repair/construct railway--industry, Deliveries: halt area in need treatment shipments; construction. local and state government deliveries to emergency Dedicate equipment stationary hazardous cargo Increase deliveries to area Increase deliveries to area in areas. to emergency may be an easier target. in need--equipment and need--industry Emergency Deliveries: assistance Reroute/Delay personnel limits. Dedicate equipment to emergency deliver emergency Deliveries--deliveries Dedicate emergency assistance--industry supplies. essential for public health equipment--equipment may be critically delayed. limits Emergency Fuel Access--reduced or Deliveries--limited by rail suspended deliveries of track location, equipment, fuel may limit operations. personnel. 53