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54 In a broad sense, operations for hire, such as airline, freight represented 5% of total U.S. intercity freight revenue, cargo, and air taxi, are classified as commercial aviation, but less than 0.05% of national freight tons and ton-miles. while private operations for business, corporate, pleasure, Freight transport provides a significant revenue source for all and public use are classified as general aviation (GA). The major airlines, and several large airlines exclusively provide final sector (not to be treated here) is domestic military avi- freight service. ation operations. 3.4.4 Financing and Ownership 3.4.2 System Size The air transportation system can be thought of as consist- The air carrier industry includes 87 different airline com- ing of three segments: the airports; the communications, nav- panies, of which 15 are considered major. Cargo carriage is igation, and ATC system; and the aircraft. Ownership and an important revenue source for the air carriers and is the sole operation of each segment is distinct. The airports typically means of support for many relatively unknown freight opera- are owned and operated by municipalities or counties or by tors as well as the well-known express companies, each of state-chartered authorities. The communications, navigation, which operates major `airlines' themselves. The next largest and ATC system facilities are owned almost exclusively (with sectors (in terms of dollars expended) are the business use and exceptions, such as the Contract Tower Program) by the fed- corporate transport categories. The business use sector in- eral government. The noteworthy exception is the ARINC cludes the agricultural aircraft sector (dusting and spraying), (Aeronautical Radio Inc.) communications network, which is which is small economically, but very important from a threat owned by the airlines. The government is also responsible for viewpoint. The corporate transport category involves many promulgating regulations and certifying pilots. Commercial minor and major corporate fleets operated for employee trans- operators and private owners own the aircraft. port. The air taxi industry (transport on demand) is large and diverse. The pleasure flying sector is economically important 3.4.5 General Organization and encompasses more than 160,000 aircraft of many vari- eties, a large pilot population, and relative ease of entry, all of Besides aircraft and the people who operate and maintain which present a vast opportunity for mischief. Table 3-24 them, other entities compose the air transportation system: quantifies the relative magnitudes of these several sectors. Airports--Airports include major, intermediate, and 3.4.3 System Use minor hub airports; the non-hub commercial airports; public-use GA airports and heliports; private airports and The U.S. aviation industry transports both people and heliports; and military airports. The GA airports can be freight. In 2002, 595 million passengers enplaned, repre- roughly divided into a group primarily serving business senting 32.77 billion revenue passenger-miles. In 2001, air and corporate operators and a group primarily serving TABLE 3-24 Size and Economic Characterization of the Aviation Industry Passenger Fuel Number of Employees/ Vehicle Passengers/ Sector Miles/Ton Economics Consumption Aircraft Operators Miles Tons Miles (annual) (annual) Air Carrier 8,055 642,797 5,664M 595M 516,129M $104.4B 14,845M employees passengers passenger gallons miles (jet) Air Cargo 20M tons 58,400M ton- $ 8.2B miles Air Taxi 4,019 22,000 pilots General 217,533 637,000 jobs >3,877M 180M >13,500M $ 17.5B 337M Aviation (direct and passengers passenger (direct) gallons (total) indirect) miles $102B (jet) 600,000 (direct and 998M pilots indirect) gallons (gas) Corporate 11,033 Business 25,169 Agriculture 4,294 Pleasure 163,000 Other 14,037 (incl. air taxi) (Source: USDOT National Transportation Statistics, 2002, and "Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airports Security", National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Oct 1, 2003.)