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56 cross-communicate because of differences in radio systems. ity of the air transportation system causes many additional Local law enforcement agencies, medical centers, private vulnerabilities. EMS operators, the USCG, and available military responders Commercial airports involve concentrations of people are all under separate jurisdictions. The need for prior plan- within the terminal buildings and in people-mover systems. ning and organization is obvious. The FAA has published Current precautions involve stepped up inspections of vehi- two Advisory Circulars that apply directly: cles as they enter parking structures that are under, over, or next to populated buildings. Commercial airports also have AC 00-7D, State and Regional Disaster Airlift (SARDA) large fuel tank farms, often totally aboveground, that are vul- Planning (09/15/98) and nerable to attack (particularly from the air). Even smaller AC 00-59, Integrating Helicopter and Tiltrotor Assets general aviation airports have tank farms of sufficient size to into Disaster Relief Planning (11/13/98). present a tempting target. The availability and potential use of shoulder-fired missiles These provide guidance for the use of all GA resources, designed to down aircraft is a very serious threat. Man Portable EMS airlift, and so forth, for disaster recovery. State and local Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) include the well-known planners should likewise be aware of other organizations that Russian SA-7, French Mistral, and U.S. Stinger missiles. An may exist in the local area. These include the Civil Air Patrol estimated 500,000 MANPADS exist and many are available (organized under the auspices of the Air Force), the Emergency on the black market. It is very difficult for a transport aircraft Volunteer Air Corp (EVAC), the Air Care Alliance, Angel to detect such a missile, let alone take the required evasive ac- Fights, and any other local GA clubs and organizations. Coor- tion should one be detected. Airliners are not currently dination by local disaster relief officials with the SARDA plan equipped with detection and spoofing systems such as those (if present), law enforcement, volunteer organizations, and used on several types of military aircraft. The airline compa- local airport management will be required in order for effective nies, which are in serious economic conditions, are loathe to disaster response to be available. expend funds on such systems. Cost estimates for equipping SARDA resources may include aircraft and other resources the domestic airline fleet range from $5 to $25 billion dollars. under the control of state and local governments, the National General aviation airports are by their nature relatively vul- Guard, the DOD, and the USCG, as well as commercial op- nerable to sabotage. In many cases, few obstructions to entry erators, private aircraft owners, corporations, airfield opera- (e.g., fences) are present, and access to airport property is tors, the Civil Air Patrol, and other volunteer organizations. unrestricted. Aircraft are relatively easy to steal and the air- The National Response Plan (NRP), published in 2004, can space around the airport is uncontrolled, allowing perpetra- be activated in the event of a disaster. In that event, the states tors to make off with an aircraft undetected. It is not difficult executing SARDA plans will then coordinate missions to envision a motivated person (even if poorly trained in pi- closely with Federal personnel as directed in the NRP. loting small aircraft), already committed to suicide, attempt- Transport aircraft, in both passenger and cargo configura- ing to steal and fly off in an aircraft. tions, are extremely useful for bringing in responders and ma- Such bravado is not even required if a person is licensed terials and evacuating the injured and the general populace. The and checked-out in an available type of rental aircraft. Air- major limitation is not the supply of aircraft available, but the craft rentals are commonplace. A licensed pilot could rent an ability to squeeze operations through limited airport capacity. aircraft, fly it to a remote airfield (or a pasture); load chemi- The command and control capabilities available can result in a cal, biological, or radiological materiel; and fly the aircraft well-managed, efficient process. Many of the air carrier com- off to the intended target. panies are participants in the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF). Agricultural aircraft are used not only for spraying and CRAF is made up of air carriers who commit under contract to dusting crops, but also for tasks such as mosquito suppression provide operating and support personnel for DOD so that it can in urban areas. Two of the 9/11 hijackers were known to have quickly mobilize the nation's airlift resources. CRAF response investigated such aircraft for use as a weapon. Fortunately, plans consider the need to move injured persons as well as there is little opportunity to rent such aircraft. Because crop cargo and personnel. Although CRAF was originally designed dusting requires specialized training and experience, an inex- to meet DOD force projection requirements in a military emer- perienced pilot would be unlikely to be hired as an agricul- gency (troop and materiel transport), it can be exercised in tural pilot. Theft, however, is a possibility. response to any suitable national emergency that has been de- clared by the President or Congress. 3.4.8 Historical Emergency Actions The standard tight control of aircraft operations allowed the Air Transportation Vulnerabilities skies to be cleared of IFR traffic (which includes all commer- cial flights) in a matter of minutes after the terrorist attacks of Much of the security effort being expended today regards September 11th. Another good example is the recent power hijack and sabotage prevention. The vastness and complex- failure affecting Ohio, Michigan, southern Canada, and the