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57 northeastern states. During the power outage, most flights al- AC 00-59, "Integrating Helicopter and Tiltrotor Assets into ready in the air were able to reach their intended destinations. Disaster Relief Planning (11/13/98," AND-710, Federal Avi- Others were able to proceed safely to an alternate airport. As ation Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation. time progressed, departing flights were cancelled in many National Response Plan, Department of Homeland Secu- cases as a prudent response to the situation. Had an emergency rity, December, 2004 (available at evacuation been required, operations could have proceeded. dhspublic/interapp/editorial/editorial_0566.xml) There have been several troubling experiences with infec- tious diseases recently, including the SARS breakout and the appearance of monkeypox in the United States. Air trans- 3.5 THE MASS TRANSIT SYSTEM portation was unfortunately directly involved in the global 3.5.1 Definitions spread of SARS. Although monkeypox did not come to the United States by air; contaminated animals were imported For the purposes of this project, public transportation, or from Ghana, distributed, and infected prairie dogs in pet mass transit, as in the American Public Transportation Asso- stores, which in turn infected humans. New infectious dis- ciations (APTA) definition, which is "transportation by bus, eases can be introduced with relative ease, and aircraft ven- rail, or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, tilation systems could be deliberately contaminated in an providing to the public general or special service (but not effort to start an epidemic. including school buses or charter or sightseeing service) on a Regarding response capabilities during hurricanes, airports regular and continuing basis." A transit agency (transit sys- are slow to snap back from wind and storm damage. There tends tem) is an entity responsible for administering and managing to be a large amount of debris to be cleaned up resulting from transit activities and services. Transit agencies can directly wind-damaged vehicles and aircraft. Even minor debris accu- operate the service or contract out for all or part of the service. mulations must be completely cleaned up to prevent the inges- A mode is the system for carrying transit passengers de- tion of foreign materials by jet engine intakes. This can result in scribed by specific right-of-way, technology, and operational closure of the airport for a day or two after the storm passes. features (e.g., bus, rail). When more than one mode of ser- Flooding conditions often result in situations where the vice is operated, it is a multimodal transit agency. Transit local populace (and sometimes relief workers) can become data are generally collected by mode. Intermodal (multi- trapped and require evacuation, either by boat or by heli- modal) are those issues or activities that involve more than copter. Also, helicopters are ideal for searching and seeking one mode of transportation, including transportation connec- out individuals in distress. Examples abound where heli- tions, choices, cooperation, and coordination of various copters have been pressed into service in rescue situations. modes. Definitions of public transit modes are provided as For example, in the aftermath of the 1982 Air Florida crash the last section of this chapter. into the Potomac on departure from Washington National Fixed-route services are those provided on a repetitive, Airport on a snowy day, a National Park Service helicopter fixed-schedule basis along a specific route with vehicles was involved in the rescue activities. stopping to pick up and deliver passengers to specific loca- tions; each fixed-route trip serves the same origins and des- 3.4.9 System Summary Matrix tinations. Fixed-route services may include occasional route deviations on a discretionary basis. Demand-response ser- Table 3-25 summarizes aviation operational sequences, vices are the only form of non-fixed-route services. traffic flow, and historical emergency response. Table 3-26 summarizes aviation control options, operational limits, and 3.5.2 System Size existing authority. Approximately 6,000 public transportation systems oper- Aviation Information Sources ate in the United States and Canada. Most of these agencies operate more than one mode of service. Tables 3-27 and 3-28 National Transportation Statistics, 2002, Bureau of Trans- provide some basic statistics on public transit vehicle charac- portation Statistics, U. S. Department of Transportation, teristics and employment, respectively. The number of transit BTS02-08. agencies and number of vehicles providing each mode of "Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee service are listed in Table 3-29. More than 2,250 agencies Working Group on General Aviation Airports Security," Na- provide bus service, about 5,250 operate demand-response tional Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Oct service, and 150 operate other modes (i.e., rail and ferryboat). 1, 2003. Two-thirds of U.S. public transportation agencies provide ser- AC 00-7D, "State and Regional Disaster Airlift (SARDA) vice designed for senior citizens and persons with disabilities. Planning (09/15/98)," ADA-20, Federal Aviation Adminis- Many public transit agencies contract service with private tration, U.S. Department of Transportation. (text continues on page 60)

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58 TABLE 3-25 Aviation Operational Sequences, Traffic Flow, and Historical Emergency Response Operational Traffic Flow Historical Emergency Response Sequences Traffic Types Traffic Patterns Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Vehicles: Airline Normal: A mix of business travelers Normal Operations: Cancel Departures: Under Reroute Service flights operate on fixed and tourists. Airline travel is Airlines use `hub and control of ATC System Evacuate People city-pair routes. Air taxi preplanned, often with lengthy lead spoke' concept. Other Command Center, departures Suspend Fares operators provide on- times. operators use `anytime - can be held or canceled. Inform Passengers demand service. Private Constraining Emergencies: Weather anywhere' concept. Reroute Arrivals: Under Dedicate Aircraft to operators fly in conditions (low visibility, heavy rain Emergencies: `Hub and local ATC or ATC SCC First Responders. `anytime, anywhere' and ice at airports) can seriously disrupt spoke' can be abandoned direction, flights redirected to Transport Supplies mode. travel, resulting in delays and in favor of `anytime - alternate airports. Civil Reserve Air Passengers: Intermodal cancellations. anywhere' concept for Other Services: EMS Fleet transport at origin and Expanding Emergencies: Emergency evacuations and for response, local law EMS Response destination. Peak airline plans (Civil Reserve Air Fleet, bringing in emergency enforcement aircraft, USCG, Examples: WTC and demand on weekdays, Emergency Medical Service operators, responders. National Guard for search, Pentagon 9/11, Air primarily Monday and USCG, National Guard) can be rescue, delivering emergency Florida crash, floods Friday. executed with ability to operate when workers, etc. and where needed.

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TABLE 3-26 Aviation Control Options, Operational Limits, and Existing Authority Control Options Operational Limits Existing Authority Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Short Term (2 hr) Long Term (>2 hr) Options Reroute Same as short term Reroute/Suspend Same as short term Reroute/Suspend Service--airlines, Air Traffic Service, and: Service--Fuel and: Control, local and state government. Suspend Implement Limitations Implement Suspend Fares--local, state, and federal Departures National Suspend Emergency government. Suspend Fare Response Plan Fares--overcrowding, Plan--Lead Time; Add/Refocus Service--local, state, and federal Collection Implement revenue loss Local Confusion government, first responder organization (CRAF) CRAF, SARDA Add/Refocus Implement CRAF, Substitute Service--airlines, local and state Add or Plans Service--Airport SARDA government. Refocus Coordinate Capacity Limits Plans--Funding Transport FR--first responder organization, local Service Mutual Substitute Limitations, Lead and state government . (CRAF) Assistance--Po- Service--(e.g., ground Time ATC, ARINC Communications--federal Substitute lice and Fire, transit) inefficient Coordinate government, airlines Service Volunteer Transport Assistance (Police, Implement Emergency Plan--local, state, and (ground Organizations, FR--jurisdictional issues, fire, volunteers, federal government, transportation) USCG, National command structure USCG, National Implement CRAF, SARDA Plans--local, state, Transport FR Guard, etc. ATC, ARINC Guard, etc.)-- and federal government, first responder ATC, ARINC Convert Cargo Communications--May Coordination Issues organization, airlines Communica- Aircraft for not apply to EMS and Convert Cargo Coordinate Mutual Assistance--local and state tions Ensures Medical other local services Aircraft for government, first responder organization Control Transport Law Enforcement Medical Convert Cargo Aircraft to Medical Local Law Media (inform Coordination--Jurisdic- Transport--Lead Transport--federal government, airlines Enforcement public) tion issues, incompatible Time Media--industry Coordination communications Media (inform Evacuate Terminals--first responder Evacuate Evacuate public)--Lack of organization, local and state government, airlines Terminals Terminals--Limited Control ground transport 59