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61 TABLE 3-31 Percent of Workers Using Public quired minimum 20% of matching funds and in many cases, Transit in the Top 12 Urban Areas with Worker capital projects are financed solely by state and local funds. Use of Public Transit Operating funds provide income for operational expenses. Most operating funds originate from local sources (73%). Urban Central Urban Area Passenger fares pay 35% of operating expenses, local govern- Area City ments pay 24%, and nongovernmental sources and taxes levied New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT 29.0 52.8 by the transportation system, tolls, and fees, pay 14%. State and Washington, DC-MD-VA 13.4 33.2 Boston, MA-NH-RI 12.3 32.3 federal governments contribute 22% and 5%, respectively. San Francisco-Oakland, CA 16.2 31.1 Funding of security and emergency preparedness fall Chicago, IL-IN 12.6 26.1 under both operating expenses (e.g., plan development and Philadelphia, PA 9.9 25.4 training) and capital expenses (e.g., cameras and alarms). Pittsburgh, PA 8.0 20.5 Baltimore, MD 7.6 19.5 The overlap of safety, security, and emergency preparedness Seattle, WA 7.6 17.6 allows financing of emergency-related preparations from Atlanta, GA 4.2 15.0 various sources. FTA funds provided to transit agencies may Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN 5.4 14.6 be applied to security and emergency response. Some of the New Orleans, LA 7.3 13.7 funds recently available to specifically address emergencies (2000, U.S. Census Bureau) include grants from the Office of Domestic Preparedness for public transit security and emergency response. In addition, FTA has made grants to 86 transit agencies for up to $50,000 new technologies and clean fuels, and federal requirements for to be applied to emergency response drills. Transit agency provision of services and facilities for people with disabilities expenditures on security, their security increases since the (i.e., the ADA). Generally, and predominantly, these activities terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and their security pri- were financed by funds other than those from fares. orities are assessed in a recent survey by APTA.1 Public transportation funds come from two main sources, capital and operating. Understanding the breakdown may help to understand funding of security-related projects. 3.5.5 General Organization Table 3-32 summarizes public transit financial statistics. Capital funds are used to finance infrastructure needs such Depending on the agency, public transit agencies may pro- as new construction and rehabilitation of existing facilities. vide service for a city, a county, or a multicounty/multicity The federal government contributes 50% of all capital fund- metropolitan area. Boards of directors/trustees typically over- ing for public transportation. In Fiscal Year 2003, up to 80% see transit agencies. Depending on the agency, the boards may of the total capital cost may be federally funded. The balance include governor-appointed members, county supervisors, is typically paid for by a combination of state and local funds. state officials, members of the public, the mayor, and/or city Many state and local governments provide more than the re- council representatives. Advisory committees often provide additional input. Some state governors have veto power over board decisions. The board commonly selects an executive TABLE 3-32 Public Transit Financial Statistics (APTA, 2001) director/general manager (GM) to administer the agency. Typically, there are separate divisions for finance and admin- Agencies, Number of 6,000 Fares Collected, Passenger $8,891,063,000 istration; engineering and project management; human re- Fare per Unlinked Trip, Average $0.92 sources; and operations. Safety and emergency plans may fall Expense, Operating Total (a) $23,516,916,000 under operations or another division (e.g., legal affairs) or it * Salaries and Wages (b) $10,626,938,000 may be a separate division of its own depending on the agency. * Fringe Benefits (b) $5,705,586,000 * Services (b) $1,389,348,000 Often, the safety and security office reports directly to the GM, * Fuel and Lubricants (b) $716,776,000 where operational responsibility ultimately rests. However, * Materials and Supplies, Other (b) $1,645,758,000 because transit is a public service, safety and security issues * Utilities (b) $772,447,000 can readily become a political matter and thus invite the atten- * Casualty and Liability (b) $492,802,000 tion and actions of the board and public officials. * Purchased Transportation (b) (c) $2,976,508,000 * Other (b) ($809,247,000) * Vehicle Operations (c) $10,438,750,000 * Vehicle Maintenance (c) $4,348,422,000 3.5.6 Operations * Non-vehicle Maintenance (c) $2,290,124,000 * General Administration (c) $3,463,113,000 An operations control center or dispatcher coordinates Expense, Capital Total $11,418,662,000 transit agency service. Nearly all public transit vehicles are * Rolling Stock (vehicles) $4,027,344,000 * Facilities $6,301,830,000 1 Survey of the United States Transit System Security Needs and Funding Priorities, April * Other (equipment and services) $1,089,488,000 2004, available at the American Public Transit Association website: http://www.apta.com/ (a) Sum of (b) lines OR sum of (c) lines. services/security/documents/security_survey.pdf