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NCHRP REPORT 525 Surface Transportation Security Volume 10 A Guide to Transportation's Role in Public Health Disasters

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2006 (Membership as of March 2006) OFFICERS Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Vice Chair: Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT JOHN D. BOWE, Regional President, APL Americas, Oakland, CA LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Professor and Senior Associate Dean of Research and Technology, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, and Director, METRANS National Center for Metropolitan Transportation Research, USC, Los Angeles SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley HAROLD E. LINNENKOHL, Commissioner, Georgia DOT SUE MCNEIL, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JOHN R. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson HENRY GERARD SCHWARTZ, JR., Senior Professor, Washington University MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas at Austin MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) SANDRA K. BUSHUE, Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) J. RICHARD CAPKA, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) JACQUELINE GLASSMAN, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) J. EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology (Chair) ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board J. RICHARD CAPKA, Federal Highway Administration C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas at Austin JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX--Central Florida Regional and Transportation Officials Transportation Authority JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 525 Surface Transportation Security Volume 10 A Guide to Transportation's Role in Public Health Disasters DAVID FRIEDMAN DELMA BRATVOLD STEVE MIRSKY GEOFF KAISER PAUL SCHAUDIES ERIC BOLZ RAY CASTOR FRED LATHAM Science Applications International Corporation McLean, VA S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Operations and Safety Aviation Public Transit Rail Freight Transportation Marine Transportation Security Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 525: Volume 10 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Price $39.00 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway Project 12-59(19) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and ISBN 0-309-09852-1 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation Library of Congress Control Number 2006902581 develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2006 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation COPYRIGHT PERMISSION Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, Department of Transportation. FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the was requested by the Association to administer the research material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and NOTICE cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in National Research Council. a position to use them. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review The program is developed on the basis of research needs this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, to the National Research Council and the Board by the American they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee qualified research agencies are selected from those that have according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council Council. and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the 500 Fifth Street, NW National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Washington, DC 20001 Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual and can be ordered through the Internet at: states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 525 VOLUME 10 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP S. A. PARKER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT SP20-59 PANEL FOR PROJECT 12-59(19) Field of Special Projects--Area of Security DAVID S. EKERN, Idaho Transportation Department (Chair) DONNA F. BARBISCH, Global Deterrence Alternatives, LLC, Washington, DC JOHN CORBIN, Wisconsin DOT ERNEST R. "RON" FRAZIER, Countermeasures Assessment and Security Experts, LLC, Camden, NJ FREDERICK C. GOODINE, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC RICHARD HATCHETT, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness, Washington, DC ANTHONY R. KANE, AASHTO TERRY SIMMONDS, Olympia, WA WILLIAM A. WALLACE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute JAMES WILDING, Glenwood, MD PATRICK BURNS, TSA Liaison JOEDY W. CAMBRIDGE, TRB Liaison DEBORAH DEITRICH, U.S. EPA Liaison DENNIS H. DELK, DHS Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate Liaison DAVID VAN DUZEE, TSA Liaison WILLIAM J. FAGAN, Federal Railroad Administration Liaison GREG HULL, APTA Liaison ROBERT D. JAMISON, FTA Liaison JACK LEGLER, American Trucking Associations Liaison WILLIAM H. LYERLY, DHS Science and Technology Directorate Liaison LAURA MCCLURE, U.S.DOT Office of Emergency Transportation Liaison VINCENT P. PEARCE, FHWA Liaison MATTHEW D. RABKIN, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Liaison IAN A. REDHEAD, Airport Council International-North America Liaison ROGER RIEGER, Long Beach Transit Liaison MARTIN ROJAS, American Trucking Associations Liaison DAVID SARGENT, U.S.DOT Research and Special Projects Administration Liaison DAWN TUCKER, U.S.DOT Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Management Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report is the result of contributions from a number of indi- The SAIC program manager was David Friedman. Primary authors viduals. The NCHRP Project 20-59(19) panel served as the primary of the CBR threat sections were Delma Bratvold, Steve Mirsky, advisor for this report. This report reflects the best judgment and Geoff Kaiser, and Paul Schaudies. The primary authors of the trans- experience of Science Applications International Corporation portation overview section were Eric Bolz, Delma Bratvold, Ray (SAIC) staff, who researched and developed this report from pub- Castor, and Fred Latham. licly available literature in addition to some personal interviews.

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This tenth volume of NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security will FOREWORD assist transportation managers in the development of transportation response options to By S. A. Parker an extreme event involving chemical, biological, or radiological agents. The project is Staff Officer applicable to all civilian sites (not just transportation sites) and focuses on the effect Transportation Research and role of transportation during such an event. Board This Report contains four products developed under NCHRP Project 20-59(19): 1. Technical information is presented on chemical, biological, and radiological threats, including vulnerabilities of the transportation system to these agents and consequence-minimization actions that may be taken within the transportation system in response to events that involve these agents. The threatrelated section of the Report presents the fundamentals of chemical, biological, and radiological agents; describes the basic information needed for emergency response decisions; discusses how chem- ical, biological, and radiological threats relate to transportation-system vulnerabili- ties and consequence-minimization actions; and generally compares the different threat-agent categories. The transportation section of the Report describes each of the transportation modes (i.e., highway, maritime, rail, aviation, and mass transit); their general organization; and their mode-specific emergency response plans, options, and structure. 2. Tracking Emergency Response Effects on Transportation (TERET) is a spread- sheet tool structured to assist transportation managers with recognition of mass-care transportation needs and identification and mitigation of potential transportation- related criticalities in essential services during extreme events. TERET is intended to be used as a guide during emergency response planning stages as well as during an emergency response exercise or actual event. The primary users are expected to be transportation planners and managers at emergency management centers. 3. The User's Manual for TERET is printed at the back of the Report. It provides step-by-step instructions on the use and maintenance of TERET. 4. An Introduction to Biological, Chemical, and Radiological Threat Agents is a slide presentation with presenter notes in MS PowerPoint. It is designed as an executive- level communications tool based on summary information from this report. Like the Report, TERET, and the User's Manual for TERET, the slide presentation is available on the TRB website. These materials should be helpful to transportation agencies in creating or evalu- ating and modifying emergency response plans, policies, and procedures consistent with the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The importance of NIMS is set out in a September 8, 2004, letter to state governors, from Department of Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge: "NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, territorial, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and effi- ciently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic inci- dents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity."

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Science Applications International Corporation prepared this volume of NCHRP Report 525 under NCHRP Project 20-59(19). Emergencies arising from terrorist threats highlight the need for transportation managers to minimize the vulnerability of travelers, employees, and physical assets through incident prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Man- agers seek to reduce the chances that transportation vehicles and facilities will be tar- gets or instruments of terrorist attacks and to be prepared to respond to and recover from such possibilities. By being prepared to respond to terrorism, each transportation agency is simultaneously prepared to respond to natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, as well as human-caused events such as hazardous materials spills and other incidents. This is the tenth volume of NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes--each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. These volumes focus on the concerns that transportation agencies are addressing when developing pro- grams in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed. Future volumes of the reports will be issued as they are completed. To develop this volume in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of sig- nificant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of state departments of transportation. A topic panel of experts in the subject area was established to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating the collected data and to review the final document. This volume was prepared to meet an urgent need for information in this area. It records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge avail- able at the time of its preparation. Work in this area is proceeding swiftly, and readers are encouraged to be on the lookout for the most up-to-date information. Volumes issued under NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security may be found on the TRB website at http://www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Objectives, 5 1.2 Audience, 5 1.3 Scope, 5 1.4 Limitations, 5 6 CHAPTER 2 Transportation Response to CBR Events 2.1 Chemical Threats, 6 2.1.1 Fundamentals, 6 2.1.2 Emergency Response Information Needs, 11 2.1.3 Threats and the Transportation System, 13 2.2 Biological Threats, 15 2.2.1 Fundamentals, 15 2.2.2 Emergency Response Needs, 20 2.2.3 Interrelationships between Biological Threats and Transportation Mode, 22 2.2.4 Consequence Minimization, 23 2.3 Radiological Threats, 24 2.3.1 Radiation Fundamentals, 24 2.3.2 Emergency Response Information Needs, 27 2.3.3 Radiological Threats and the Transportation System, 28 2.4 Comparison of CBR Threats, 30 34 CHAPTER 3 Emergency Response Plans, Options, and Structure 3.1 The Highway System, 34 3.1.1 Definitions, 34 3.1.2 System Size, 35 3.1.3 System Use, 35 3.1.4 Financing, 36 3.1.5 General Organization, 37 3.1.6 Operations, 37 3.1.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 37 3.1.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 38 3.1.9 Highway System Summary Matrix, 38 3.2 The Maritime System, 38 3.2.1 Definitions, 38 3.2.2 System Size and Modes, 40 3.2.3 System Use, 40 3.2.4 Financing, 41 3.2.5 General Organization, 42 3.2.6 Operations, 43 3.2.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 43 3.2.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 44 3.2.9 System Summary Matrix, 44 3.3 The Railway System, 44 3.3.1 Definitions, 44 3.3.2 System Size, 47 3.3.3 System Use, 47 3.3.4 Financing and Ownership, 48 3.3.5 General Organization, 49 3.3.6 Operations, 50 3.3.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 50 3.3.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 51 3.3.9 System Summary Matrix, 51 3.4 The Aviation System, 51 3.4.1 Definitions, 51 3.4.2 System Size, 54 3.4.3 System Use, 54 3.4.4 Financing and Ownership, 54 3.4.5 General Organization, 54 3.4.6 Operations, 55 3.4.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 55

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3.4.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 56 3.4.9 System Summary Matrix, 57 3.5 The Mass Transit System, 57 3.5.1 Definitions, 57 3.5.2 System Size, 57 3.5.3 System Use, 60 3.5.4 Financing, 60 3.5.5 General Organization, 61 3.5.6 Operations, 61 3.5.7 Emergency Plans and Organization, 62 3.5.8 Historical Emergency Actions, 63 3.5.9 System Summary Matrix, 63 3.5.10 Other Mass Transit Definitions, 66 A-1 APPENDIX A Chemical Threat Information B-1 APPENDIX B Biological Threat Information C-1 APPENDIX C Radiological Threat Information D-1 APPENDIX D TERET Tool Users Manual