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NATIONAL NCHRP SYNTHESIS 356 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details A Synthesis of Highway Practice

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of November 2005) OFFICERS Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA JEAN JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) J. RICHARD CAPKA, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) JACQUELINE GLASSMAN, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) DAVID B. HORNER, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT (Chair) MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology J. RICHARD CAPKA, Federal Highway Administration ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA and Transportation Officials C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 356 Pavement Markings--Design and Typical Layout Details A Synthesis of Highway Practice CONSULTANT BRUCE E. FRIEDMAN KimleyHorn and Associates, Inc. Raleigh, North Carolina S UBJECT A REAS Highway Operations, Capacity, and Traffic Control Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 356 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Price $33.00 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local Project 20-5 (Topic 36-06) interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISSN 0547-5570 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and ISBN 0-309-09763-0 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation Library of Congress Control No. 2005937611 develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2006 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation COPYRIGHT PERMISSION Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Department of Transportation. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit was requested by the Association to administer the research Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee material, request permission from CRP. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research NOTICE Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National a position to use them. Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that The program is developed on the basis of research needs the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the qualified research agencies are selected from those that have Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. and the Transportation Research Board. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical The needs for highway research are many, and the National committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the Washington, DC 20001 National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual and can be ordered through the Internet at: states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP GARY D. TAYLOR, CTE Engineers EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF THOMAS R. BOHUSLAV, Texas DOT STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Information Services DONN E. HANCHER, University of Kentucky JON WILLIAMS, Manager, Synthesis Studies DWIGHT HORNE, Federal Highway Administration DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer YSELA LLORT, Florida DOT DON TIPPMAN, Editor WESLEY S.C. LUM, California DOT CHERYL KEITH, Senior Secretary JAMES W. MARCH, Federal Highway Administration JOHN M. MASON, JR., Pennsylvania State University TOPIC PANEL CATHERINE NELSON, Oregon DOT DANIEL E. CENTA, City of Pueblo, Colorado LARRY VELASQUEZ, New Mexico DOT RICHARD A. CUNARD, Transportation Research Board PAUL T. WELLS, New York State DOT JAMES W. ELLISON, Pierce County, Washington JIM KELLENBERGER, Kellenberger Engineering, Inc. FHWA LIAISON STEVEN A. McDONALD, National Engineering Technology WILLIAM ZACCAGNINO Corporation ROBERT SEYFRIED, Northwestern University TRB LIAISON DAVID C. WOODIN, New York State Department of Transportation STEPHEN F. MAHER KENNETH S. OPIELA, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) W. SCOTT WAINWRIGHT, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison)

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FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- By Staff mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- Transportation tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, Research Board full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and eval- uating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials--through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program--authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Proj- ect 20-5, "Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems," searches out and syn- thesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis identifies variations in pavement marking designs, practices, and policies, as provided by 48 of 50 state departments of transportation, and transportation agencies from the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and four cities. This information will be valuable to FHWA and the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices as they con- sider the need for revisions to the 2008 edition of Part 3 of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. In addition, the information will be useful to state and local government agencies as they develop or revise their pavement marking design standards. This syn- thesis does not specifically address the safety aspects or cost-effectiveness of the pavement marking layout policies and practices of the various agencies. This synthesis report contains information derived from a survey questionnaire distrib- uted to all 50 state transportation agencies, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and four large cities; a literature review; and interviews. Bruce E. Friedman, PTOE, KimleyHorn and Associates, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject field. The members of the oversight panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 3 Organization, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO PAVEMENT MARKINGS AT INTERSECTIONS Turn Lanes, 5 Lane Lines for Dual Turn Lanes, 13 Lane Line Extensions Into Intersection for Dual Turn Lanes, 14 Use and Type of Dotted Lines in Turn Lane Tapers, 16 Left-Turn Lane Added Between Through Lanes of Two-Lane Highways, 16 Solid Lane Lines Between Through Lanes on Signalized Approaches, 19 Crosswalks, 19 Stop Lines, 22 Right-Turn Channelizing Islands, 23 25 CHAPTER THREE PAVEMENT MARKINGS BETWEEN INTERSECTIONS Midblock Crosswalks, 25 Minimum Length of Passing Zones, 25 Minimum Length of No-Passing Zones, 26 Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes, 26 Climbing or Passing Lanes, 29 Lane Reductions, 31 Painted Medians, Paved Shoulders, and Approaches to Obstructions, 32 36 CHAPTER FOUR PAVEMENT MARKINGS AT INTERCHANGES Entrance Ramp Gores, 36 Exit Ramp Gores, 39 43 CHAPTER FIVE PAVEMENT MARKINGS NOT SPECIFICALLY ADDRESSED IN THE MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES Arrows and Symbols, 43 Word Messages, 43 Miscellaneous Treatments, 43 45 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 GLOSSARY

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54 APPENDIX A FIGURES FROM CHAPTER 3B OF THE 2003 MUTCD THAT ARE REFERENCED IN THIS SYNTHESIS 71 APPENDIX B STANDARDS FROM CHAPTER 3B OF THE 2003 MUTCD THAT ARE REFERENCED IN THIS SYNTHESIS 72 APPENDIX C INVENTORY OF INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM THE 54 AGENCIES THAT SUPPLIED INFORMATION FOR THIS SYNTHESIS 77 APPENDIX D TURN LANES AT INTERSECTIONS 87 APPENDIX E LANE LINES FOR DUAL TURN LANES 90 APPENDIX F DOTTED LINES IN TURN LANE TAPERS 93 APPENDIX G LEFT-TURN LANE ADDED BETWEEN THE THROUGH LANES OF A TWO-WAY HIGHWAY 95 APPENDIX H SOLID LANE LINES BETWEEN THROUGH LANES ON SIGNALIZED APPROACHES 97 APPENDIX I CROSSWALKS AND STOP LINES 104 APPENDIX J MINIMUM LENGTH OF PASSING ZONES 106 APPENDIX K MINIMUM LENGTH OF NO-PASSING ZONES 107 APPENDIX L TWO-WAY LEFT-TURN LANES 111 APPENDIX M CLIMBING OR PASSING LANES 114 APPENDIX N LANE REDUCTIONS 117 APPENDIX O CHANNELIZING ISLANDS, PAINTED MEDIANS, PAVED SHOULDERS, AND APPROACHES TO OBSTRUCTIONS 122 APPENDIX P ENTRANCE RAMP GORES 129 APPENDIX Q EXIT RAMP GORES 138 APPENDIX R NON-MUTCD ITEMS