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19 SOLID LANE LINES BETWEEN THROUGH Width of Solid Lane Lines Between LANES ON SIGNALIZED APPROACHES Through Lanes (13 agencies) Figure 4 shows an example of a solid lane line between the The following are the widths of the solid lane lines between through lanes on a signalized approach. through lanes on the approaches to intersection stop lines for the 13 agencies that allow or require them: 2003 MUTCD Provisions AK, CT, OK, MT, SD, WV--4 in. PA--4 or 6 in. Paragraph 5 of Section 3B.04 contains the following option: DC--6 in. "[Solid white lane line markings] may also be used to sepa- DE, FL, UT, VA, LAN--unspecified. rate traffic lanes approaching an intersection." Drawing "b" in Figure 3B-11 illustrates the use of solid lane lines between through lanes on the approach to an intersection. Drawings CROSSWALKS "c" and "d" in Figure 3B-11 illustrate using broken lane lines between through lanes on the approach to an intersection (see 2003 MUTCD Provisions Appendix A for figures). Paragraph 4 of Section 3B.17 contains the following stan- dard: "When crosswalk lines are used, they shall consist of Use Versus Non-Use of Solid Lane Lines solid white lines that mark the crosswalk. They shall be not Between Through Lanes (42 agencies) less than 6 in. or greater than 24 in. in width." The color and that the lines must be solid lines are specified, but flexibility The design standards for 29 agencies (AL, AR, CA, CO, is given regarding the width that may be used, and no stan- GA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MO, NV, NY, NC, OH, dards are given regarding the width of the crosswalk or the OR, SC, TN, TX, VT, WA, WI, WY, PR, CLT, NYC, and layout of the lines. TUC) consistently show the use of broken lane lines between through lanes on the approaches to intersection Paragraph 5 of Section 3B.17 contains the following guid- stop lines. The design standards for Maryland specifically ance: "If transverse lines are used to mark a crosswalk, the state, "Lane lines between through lanes should not be con- gap between the lines should not be less than 6 ft. If diagonal verted to solid lines on the approaches to intersections, or longitudinal lines are used without transverse lines to mark except in critical areas where it is advisable to discourage a crosswalk, the crosswalk should be not less than 6 ft wide." lane changing." Paragraphs 12 through 14 of Section 3B.17 contain the The design standards for Delaware and Montana show the following guidance and options: "For added visibility, the use of either solid lane lines or broken lane lines between area of the crosswalk may be marked with white diagonal through lanes on the approaches to intersection stop lines. lines at a 45-degree angle to the line of the crosswalk or with white longitudinal lines parallel to traffic flow, as shown in The design standards for 11 agencies (AK, CT, FL, OK, PA, Figure 3B-16. When diagonal or longitudinal lines are used SD, UT, VA, WV, DC, and LAN) consistently show the use of to mark a crosswalk, the transverse crosswalk lines may be solid lane lines between through lanes on the approaches to omitted. This type of marking may be used at locations where intersection stop lines. substantial numbers of pedestrians cross without any other traffic control device, at locations where physical conditions Length of Solid Lane Lines Between are such that added visibility of the crosswalk is desired, or at Through Lanes (13 agencies) places where a pedestrian crosswalk might not be expected. If used, the diagonal or longitudinal lines should be 12 to 24 in. The following are the lengths of the solid lane lines between wide and spaced 12 to 60 in. apart. The marking design through lanes on the approaches to intersection stop lines for should avoid the wheel paths, and the spacing should not the 13 agencies that allow or require them: exceed 2.5 times the line width." UT--27 ft (shown as 8 m) Figure 3B-16 shows three examples of crosswalk mark- CT, FL, OK, LAN--50 ft ings: a standard crosswalk comprised of two parallel trans- DC--90 ft verse lines, a high-visibility crosswalk comprised of longitu- VA, WV--100 ft dinal lines without the transverse lines, and a high-visibility PA--150 ft crosswalk comprised of diagonal lines between two trans- AK--300 ft in urban areas and 500 ft in rural areas verse lines. SD--equal to the length of any full-width turn lanes adja- cent to the through lanes Paragraph 15 of Section 3B.17 contains the following option: DE, MT--unspecified. "When an exclusive pedestrian phase that permits diagonal

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20 crossing is provided at a traffic control signal, a marking as The design standards for nine agencies (CA, IN, KY, ME, shown in Figure 3B-17 may be used for the crosswalk." ND, OH, SC, WI, and CLT) show the use of standard cross- walks only. Figure 3B-17 shows an example of crosswalk markings that allow diagonal crossing of the intersection. The mark- The design standards for eight agencies (CT, GA, HI, NV, ings are comprised of four standard crosswalks, but the trans- SD, VT, WA, and WY) show the use of high-visibility cross- verse lines closest to the intersection are interrupted at each walks only. corner to communicate to pedestrians that a diagonal cross- ing is permitted. The figure includes a note that mentions that The design standards for Alabama recommend that high- the transverse lines closest to the intersection may be omit- visibility crosswalks be used for school crosswalks. ted, which would leave only one transverse line across each leg of the intersection (see Appendix A for figures). The design standards for Alaska recommend that standard crosswalks be used at signals and on approaches controlled by STOP signs, and that high-visibility crosswalks be used Use of Standard and High-Visibility Crosswalks (50 agencies) for all other locations. For the purposes of this synthesis, the following definitions for The design standards for Colorado recommend that high- standard and high-visibility crosswalks will apply. Standard visibility crosswalks be used at complicated and/or channel- crosswalks are those crosswalks that are marked by two paral- ized intersections and at midblock crosswalks. lel transverse lines only. High-visibility crosswalks are those crosswalks that are marked by longitudinal or diagonal lines The design standards for Illinois state that because midblock with or without the transverse lines. Figure 7 shows examples crosswalks are generally unexpected by the motorist, diago- of the various crosswalk types. nal or longitudinal lines should be used in marking midblock crosswalks. The design standards for 33 agencies (AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, ID, IL, IA, KS, MD, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, The design standards for Maryland note that high-visibility NH, NY, NC, OK, OR, PA, RI, TN, TX, UT, WV, DC, PR, crosswalks may be used across roadways where the speed LAN, NYC, and TUC) indicate that both standard cross- limit is greater than 35 mph, at midblock locations, at unex- walks and high-visibility crosswalks are available for use. pected locations, and at school crosswalks. The design standards for Rhode Island specify that stan- dard crosswalks are the only type of crosswalk that can be used at intersections, and that high-visibility crosswalks should be used at midblock crosswalks. The design standards for Utah state that the high-visibil- ity crosswalk with the longitudinal lines is used for school crossings, and that the high-visibility crosswalk with the (a) Standard crosswalk diagonal lines is used only when permitted by the region traf- fic engineer. Minimum Width of Crosswalks (45 agencies) The design standards for the 45 agencies that specify a min- Longitudinal imum crosswalk width use the following minimum widths: line IA--6 ft (measured to the outside edges of the transverse Transverse crosswalk lines) line NH--6 ft (shown as 2 m, and measured from center to center of the transverse crosswalk lines) NY--6 ft (shown as 2 m) DE, ID, IN, KY, ME, MD, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, PA, SC, TX, VT, WI--6 ft Diagonal line MI--6 ft, but crosswalks at intersections are the same (b) High-visibility crosswalks width as the adjacent sidewalk FIGURE 7 Examples of crosswalks. MT--6 ft, but 8 ft is the normal width

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21 FL, OR--6 ft, but 10 ft is desirable different design requirement or option for high-visibility KS--6 ft for standard and 8 ft for high visibility crosswalks: CO--6 ft for standard and 8 to 10 ft for high visibility NC, TN--6 ft for standard and 10 ft for high visibility NY, TX, NYC--transverse lines may be used GA--6 ft 8 in. or the width of the sidewalk, whichever is AL, AZ, GA, HI, ID, TUC--transverse lines are used greater, but the edge of the crosswalk should not be MD--transverse lines are used and 45 diagonal lines more than 1 ft beyond the edge of the sidewalk may be used OK, SD, UT, WA--8 ft IA, NH--transverse lines may be used and 45 diagonal CT--8 ft at intersections and 10 ft at midblock locations lines may be used NYC--8 to 18 ft UT--45 diagonal lines may be used AL, AK, AR, NV, CLT, TUC--10 ft PA--45 diagonal lines with transverse lines may be used AZ--10 ft at intersections and 15 ft at midblock locations RI, VT--45 diagonal lines with transverse lines are used HI--typically 10 ft WV--45 diagonal lines are used and transverse lines WY--12 ft may be used. DC--15 ft unless otherwise noted on the plans, and 20 ft in the downtown central business district LAN--15 ft, but 20 ft in high pedestrian areas and on the Width of Longitudinal and Diagonal Lines receptive leg of dual left turns (to provide a better turn- (38 agencies) ing radius). The design standards for the 38 agencies that specify the widths of longitudinal or diagonal lines for high-visibility Width of Transverse Crosswalk Lines (40 agencies) crosswalks use the following widths: The design standards for the 40 agencies that specify a trans- FL, MI, RI, VT, NYC--12 in. verse line width use the following widths: TUC--at least 12 in. CO, IA, MD, PA, TX, WV--12 to 24 in. IN, ME, MI, MO, NE, NH, ND, WI, DC--6 in. WY--12 to 24 in., but 18 in. is standard MN--6 to 12 in. CT--16 in., but 24 in. wide for school, elderly, and hand- KY--6 or 12 in. icapped crosswalks IA, PA--6 to 24 in. HI--16 in. set of lines (three 4-in.-wide lines separated by WV--6 to 24 in., with the 24-in. lines used where no stop gaps of 2 in.) line is present, where speeds are more than 35 mph, or AL, AZ, ID, KS, MT, NE, NV, NH, NY, NC, OK, SD, where crosswalks are unexpected TN, UT, DC, LAN, TUC--24 in. MT--8 in. is the normal width, 6 in. is the minimum OR--24 in., or a 36-in. set of lines (two 12-in.-wide lines width, and 24 in. may be used in areas where posted separated by a gap of 12 in.) speed limits exceed 35 mph (shown as 60 km/h), WA--24 in., or a 24-in. set of lines (two 8-in.-wide lines where a stop line is not provided, and in areas where separated by a gap of 8 in.) crosswalks would not normally be expected GA--24 in. set of lines (two 8-in.-wide lines separated by GA, NC, OK, SC, TN, CLT--8 in. a gap of 8 in.) HI--at least 8 in. AK, MN--24 to 36 in. AL, AZ, AR, FL, ID, KS, MD, NY, TX, UT, VT, NYC-- MO--30 to 36 in. 12 in. OR--12 in., but 18 in. wide on state highways with posted speed limits of 55 mph or more Spacing of Longitudinal and Diagonal Lines (37 agencies) CO--12 in., but 24 in. wide if no stop line is provided TUC--12 in., but 24 in. wide on approaches controlled by The design standards for the 37 agencies that specify the STOP signs with speed limits of 45 mph or more spaces (the unmarked gap between the nearest edges of the OH--12 in., but 24 in. wide at midblock locations lines) between longitudinal or diagonal lines for high-visibility CA--12 to 24 in. crosswalks use the following spacings: AK--24 in. MD, TX, WV--12 to 24 in. Design of High-Visibility Crosswalks (38 agencies) IA--12 to 24 in. to avoid wheel paths PA--12 to 60 in. Except for 17 agencies, the design standards for those agen- CT--16 in., but 24 in. wide for school, elderly, and hand- cies that show high-visibility crosswalks consistently show icapped crosswalks the use of longitudinal lines only (without transverse lines). AL, AZ, FL, ID, MI, MT, NH, NC, SD, TN, UT, VT, DC, The design standards for the following agencies illustrate a NYC--24 in.