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29 The design standards for Arkansas show that a set of the lane reduction arrow markings shown in Figure 3B-21 arrows is placed 100 ft (measured to the center point between may be used" (see Appendix A for figures). the pair of arrows) from the beginning or end of the 2WLTL, including where the 2WLTL is interrupted for a one-direc- Type of Lane Line (22 agencies) tion left-turn lane at an intersection. A set of arrows is placed 100 ft (measured to the center point between the pair of Except for the three agencies listed here, the design standards arrows) from side streets if the 2WLTL centerline markings consistently show a broken lane line being used to separate are interrupted for an intersecting street. the two lanes in the same direction. The design standards for Washington State show that a set The design standards for California show a broken lane of arrows is placed approximately 100 ft from the ends of the line being used to separate the two lanes in the same direc- 2WLTLs. tion, but state that when a climbing lane is provided and it is necessary to prohibit trucks from passing slower moving The design standards for Ohio recommend that a set of vehicles, an 8-in.-wide solid line shall be used in place of the arrows be placed 100 to 200 ft from the near edge of inter- broken lane line and a TRUCKS RIGHT LANE ONLY sign secting streets or from the ends of the 2WLTLs. shall be placed at the beginning of the restriction and at approximately quarter-mile intervals. The design standards for Wisconsin recommend that a set of arrows be placed near intersections or driveways with The design standards for Connecticut show a double bro- turning traffic. ken line (10-ft segments with 30-ft gaps) starting at the upstream end of the full-width climbing lane and ending The design standards for Illinois require that at least two 1,150 ft upstream from the downstream end of the full-width sets of arrows be used. climbing lane. For the next 500 ft, a double line comprised of a solid line next to the permanent (left) lane and a broken The design standards for Louisiana require that at least line (10-ft segments with 30-ft gaps) next to the climbing one set of arrows be used per block. (right) lane is used. For the last 650 ft of the full-width climb- ing lane, no lane line is used. (The treatments of climbing The design standards for Montana require that at least two lanes through portions of roadways where entrance or exit sets of arrows be used per block. ramps enter or exit the roadway are also shown, as is the treatment of a climbing lane that is on an entrance ramp.) CLIMBING OR PASSING LANES The design standards for Massachusetts show a broken 2003 MUTCD Provisions line comprised of 100-ft segments with 10-ft gaps. The MUTCD does not specifically address climbing or pass- Start (Upstream End) of Lane Line (22 agencies) ing lanes. Except for the four agencies listed here, the design standards Figure 3B-3 illustrates the typical pavement markings that consistently show the lane line starting at the upstream end are used on roadways that have two lanes in one direction and of the full-width climbing or passing lane. a single lane in the other direction. This figure shows a bro- ken lane line being used to separate the two lanes traveling The design standards for California and climbing lanes in in the same direction. Drawing "a" in Figure 3B-3 shows that Minnesota show the lane line starting 50 ft downstream from passing can be permitted in the single-lane direction. the upstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. Figure 3B-12 shows examples of the pavement markings that are used where a lane is ending. This figure shows the The design standards for Iowa show the lane line starting broken lane line ending 0.75D upstream from the downstream 250 ft downstream from the upstream end of the full-width end of the full-width section, where D is the distance (based climbing or passing lane. on Section 2C.05) that a Lane Ends (W4-2) sign is placed upstream from the downstream end of the full-width section. The design standards for Wyoming show the lane line start- This is consistent with Paragraph 5 of Section 3B.09, which ing an unspecified distance downstream from the upstream says that, "Lane line markings should be discontinued one- end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. quarter of the distance between the Lane Ends sign (see Sec- tion 2C.33) and the point where the transition taper begins." Other Markings at Start (Upstream End) Lane-reduction arrows are not shown in Figure 3B-12. of Lane Line (6 agencies) Paragraph 19 of Section 3B.19 contains the following The design standards for Georgia show that drivers are always option: "In situations where a lane reduction transition occurs, directed into the right lane when they are approaching a

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30 passing lane area regardless of which side or sides of the end of the full-width climbing or passing lane. The distances roadway are widened. This is done by providing a painted are as follows: median for the upstream two-thirds of the transition taper. The painted median, which includes 24-in.-wide diagonal MA--0 ft stripes between two sets of double yellow centerlines, goes NY--100 ft from no width to a width of 8 ft during this distance. After MN--passing lanes at 150 ft, climbing lanes at 200 ft the painted median has become 8 ft wide, a 100-ft taper is ID--200 ft used to open up the left lane for faster traffic. OR--at least 200 ft, but typically 375 ft (which is 0.75D, where D is the 500-ft distance to the advance warning The design standards for Idaho and Kansas show a dotted sign) line (2-ft segments with 4-ft gaps) connecting the double yel- GA--200 ft for 35 mph, 275 ft for 45 mph, 350 ft for low centerline at the upstream end of the shifting taper with 55 mph the upstream end of the broken lane line to encourage drivers WI--350 ft to move into the right lane at the beginning of the passing IN--375 ft lane area. IA--550 ft CT--650 ft. The design standards for Minnesota show that when a pass- ing lane section is provided, passing lanes are constructed for Use of Lane-Reduction Arrows (18 agencies) both directions of traffic. A painted median marked with diag- onal stripes is provided to move all traffic into the newly The design standards for 14 agencies (AZ, CT, GA, IN, IA, KS, formed right lane by means of a shifting taper. A no-passing KY, MA, MN, MT, NY, UT, WI, and WY) do not show the zone that is at least 500 ft in length is provided upstream of the use of lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane. painted median. At the downstream end of the painted median, a broken lane line begins and the painted median abruptly ends The design standards for Idaho and Oregon state that the with a line that is perpendicular to the centerline. use of lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane is optional. The design standards for New York show a partial barrier line (a 4-in.-wide solid line on the left-hand side and a 4-in.- The design standards for Arkansas and California require wide broken line with 10-ft segments and 30-ft gaps on the the use of lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane. right-hand side) connecting the centerline at the upstream end of the shifting taper with the upstream end of the broken lane line to encourage drivers to move into the right lane at Number and Placement of Lane-Reduction Arrows the beginning of the passing lane area. (4 agencies) The four agencies that use lane-reduction arrows in the The design standards for Wisconsin show that if the length climbing or passing lane use the following number of arrows: of the shifting taper is at least 700 ft, a 4-in.-wide dotted line (3-ft segments with 12-ft gaps) connects the centerline at the OR--at least 2 upstream end of the shifting taper with the upstream end of the AK, CA, ID--3. broken lane line to encourage drivers to move into the right lane at the beginning of the climbing or passing lane area. The four agencies that use lane-reduction arrows in the climbing or passing lane place the top of the arrows at the fol- End (Downstream End) of Lane Line (18 agencies) lowing distances upstream from the downstream end of the full-width climbing or passing lane: The design standards for seven agencies (AK, AZ, CA, KS, KY, MT, and UT) show the lane line ending at a distance CA, ID--0 ft, 200 ft, and 400 ft 0.75D upstream from the downstream end of the full-width AK--0 ft, 0.375D, and 0.75D climbing or passing lane. The design standards for Wyoming OR--500 ft to the first arrow and then additional lane- show the lane line ending at a distance 0.5D upstream from reduction arrows are placed upstream with the spacing the downstream end of the full-width climbing or passing between the bottom of the downstream arrow and the lane. For each of these eight agencies, the distance D is the top of the upstream arrow being 200 ft. advance distance (based on Condition A in Table 2C-4 of the MUTCD) in feet that a Lane Ends warning sign is placed Passing Permitted or Prohibited in Opposing upstream from the downstream end of the full-width section. (Single-Lane) Direction (21 agencies) The design standards for 10 agencies show the lane line The design standards for 17 agencies (AK, GA, ID, IN, IA, ending at a specific distance upstream from the downstream KS, KY, MA, MN, NY, ND, OR, UT, WI, WY, PR, and