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4 Upstream end Downstream end In Chapters two, three, and four, the provisions found in the of lane line of lane line 2003 MUTCD regarding each area of interest are presented first, followed by the policies and practices of each of the 54 government agencies that provided information for the syn- thesis. Because there was no area of interest in this synthesis for which all 54 agencies had a policy or practice, the number of agencies for which a policy or practice was found in their FIGURE 1 Illustration of terms upstream and downstream. design standards is shown after each subheading throughout these chapters. This synthesis is not intended to be used by practitioners Chapter two details the pavement markings associated with as a design guideline when they are developing pavement intersections, including lane lines, turn arrows, and ONLY marking plans in the various states. The information in this word markings in turn lanes, dual turn lanes, and dropped synthesis is essentially a "snapshot" of current state and local lanes; dotted lines in turn lane tapers; crosswalks; stop lines; government policies and practices in effect in late 2004 and formation of left-turn lanes between the through lanes on two- early 2005. These policies and practices are subject to lane highways; and right-turn channelizing islands. change, with many agencies indicating that they were in the process of revising their design standards at the time the Chapter three reviews the pavement markings associated information in this synthesis was requested. However, prac- with sections of streets and highways between intersections, titioners can visit the websites listed in the bibliography to including midblock crosswalks; passing and no-passing obtain the latest design standards for the various agencies zones; two-way left-turn lanes; climbing and passing lanes; that maintain these websites. lane reductions; and painted medians, paved shoulders, and approaches to obstructions. This report addresses only the information that was found in the various policies and practices regarding pavement Chapter four details the pavement markings associated with marking layouts that are published by the agencies repre- the paved gores for entrance and exit ramps at interchanges. sented in this synthesis. Existing pavement markings and the actual implementation of new pavement markings within a Chapter five examines miscellaneous arrows and symbols, particular state might vary from the state's published policies word markings, and pavement marking treatments that are not and practices, particularly in small- to medium-sized towns specifically addressed in the provisions of the MUTCD. and cities and in the various districts throughout the state. No attempt has been made to discover or document any varia- Chapter six presents the conclusions of the synthesis and tions from the published policies and practices within the lists other types of pavement markings that were not included geographical areas of the agencies represented. in this synthesis. This chapter also presents suggestions for future research. In addition, this synthesis does not specifically address the safety aspects or the cost-effectiveness of the various pave- Appendix A contains the 16 figures from Chapter 3B of the ment marking layout policies and practices of the agencies. It 2003 MUTCD that are referenced throughout this synthesis. also does not provide any value judgments regarding whether certain policies and practices are superior or inferior when Appendix B is a listing of the Standards from Chapter 3B compared with the policies and practices of other agencies. of the 2003 MUTCD that are referenced in this synthesis. Appendix C is a table that was used during this synthesis to ORGANIZATION inventory the information that was received from the 54 agen- cies that supplied information. The numbers in this table will In the following four chapters, information regarding the assist the reader in finding the desired information in each pavement marking policies and practices of most of the 50 agency's design standards. states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and four local government agencies are presented. In each case, the agencies Appendixes D through R present complete descriptions of are identified using the postal service two-letter abbreviations each agency's policy or practice for each area of interest. The for the 50 states (as identified in the Glossary in this report), appendixes are arranged by area of interest and the agency with DC used for the District of Columbia, PR for Puerto information is presented in alphabetical order within each Rico; CLT for Charlotte, North Carolina; LAN for Los Ange- area of interest. Agencies for which no policies or practices les, California; NYC for New York City, New York; and concerning a particular area of interest could be found are TUC for Tucson/Pima County, Arizona. identified at the end of each appendix.