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77 APPENDIX D Turn Lanes at Intersections ALABAMA word markings is at least 32 ft. If the turn lane is longer than 500 ft, the spacing between turn arrows and ONLY word The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 30 ft from markings must be 80 ft or less. the stop line, and the top of an optional ONLY word mark- ing is separated from the bottom of the turn arrow by 32 ft. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. The bottom of an ONLY word marking (or the bottom of a turn arrow if the ONLY word marking is not used) is placed at the beginning of the solid 6-in. or 8-in.-wide lane line that ARKANSAS separates the turn lane from the adjacent through lane. Addi- tional turn arrows and ONLY word markings are placed in Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used in manda- longer turn lanes with a minimum spacing of 100 ft and a tory turn lanes, but the spacing distances are not specified. A maximum spacing of 200 ft between the tops and bottoms of solid 4-in.-wide lane line is used to separate the turn lane from subsequent turn arrows and/or ONLY word markings. the adjacent through lane. A 12-in.-wide stop line is used at the end of major street left-turn lanes even if no signals or An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow STOP signs are controlling the approach. shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used to separate a lane that is dropped as a turn lane from the adjacent through lane. ALASKA The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 4 ft from the CALIFORNIA stop line, and the tops of the letters of an ONLY word marking are separated from the bottom of the turn arrow by 4 ft. A turn arrow shall be placed in the turn lane near the point of entrance. Two or more arrows may be placed in long turn The bottom of an ONLY word marking is lined up with lanes. A solid 8-in.-wide lane line shall be used to separate the the beginning of the solid 8-in.-wide lane line that starts at turn lane from the adjacent through lane. An 8-ft-long turn the beginning of the full-width turn lane. The bottom of a arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 turn arrow is placed a distance D from the top of the ONLY of the 2003 MUTCD is typically used, but high approach word marking, with the distance D varied from 35 to 80 ft speeds may justify the use of an elongated 24-ft-long turn based on speed. arrow. ONLY word markings are used in all mandatory turn lanes. An 8-in.-wide solid line preceded by an 8-in.-wide dotted line may be placed in advance of an intersection where the An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. outside lane is dropped as a mandatory turn lane. The dotted line starts where a special RIGHT LANE TURNS RIGHT AHEAD yellow diamond-shaped warning sign is placed at a ARIZONA distance D from the beginning of the 8-in. solid line. (The distance D is the advance placement distance in feet for The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 20 ft from warning signs per the MUTCD.) the stop line. The bottom of a turn arrow is lined up with the beginning of the solid 12-in.-wide lane line at the beginning of the turn lane. An ONLY word marking is used in all COLORADO mandatory turn lanes and is installed midway between the two turn arrows. The turn arrow at the beginning of the Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are not shown in mandatory turn lane is always required, but the turn arrow mandatory turn lanes. A solid 8-in.-wide lane line is used to nearest to the stop line may be omitted when the length of the separate a mandatory turn lane from the adjacent through turn lane is 150 ft or less. lane. Additional turn arrows and ONLY word markings may be An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow used as long as the spacing between turn arrows and ONLY shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used.

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78 CONNECTICUT GEORGIA An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 25 ft shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. from the stop line regardless of whether ONLY word markings are used. DELAWARE If the turn lane is formed as a new lane at the intersection, ONLY word markings are not used. In this case, additional A left-turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of the arrow arrows are placed at 100-ft intervals (measured from the top lines up with the start of the solid 4-in.-wide lane line separat- of one arrow to the top of the next arrow). Because all turn ing the left-turn lane from the adjacent through lane. The length lanes are required to have at least two turn arrows, a shorter of the solid 4-in.-wide lane line is two-thirds of the length of spacing may be used for the second arrow in a short turn lane. the full-width turn lane. Right-turn arrows are optional in right- turn lanes. If the turn lane is formed by dropping a through lane, ONLY word markings are required in addition to the turn arrows. The top of each ONLY word marking is separated from the FLORIDA top of the previous turn arrow by 100 ft and from the top of the next turn arrow by 50 ft. The tip of the arrowhead for the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 25 ft from the stop line. If more than one turn arrow is An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow used, the bottom of a turn arrow is placed 15 ft beyond the shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. beginning of the solid 6-in.-wide lane line at the beginning of the turn lane. If more than two turn arrows are used, they are spaced evenly between the first and last turn arrows. HAWAII ONLY word markings are used in all lanes where a through An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow lane becomes a mandatory turn lane and are installed such shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. An that the bottom of the letters is 15 ft from the bottom of each elongated 12-ft-long turn arrow is also available. turn arrow. ONLY word markings are also used in conjunction with lane use arrows where a movement that would other- IDAHO wise be legal is to be prohibited. Pavement arrows should not be routinely applied in through lanes at intersections, except The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed for those with overhead lane-use control signs. 25 ft from the stop line. The bottom of a turn arrow is lined up with the beginning of the full-width turn lane. An ONLY For turn lanes where the length of the solid lane line is less word marking may be used in mandatory turn lanes and is than 100 ft, only one turn arrow is used. Two turn arrows are installed midway between the two turn arrows. If the turn used for turn lanes where the length of the solid lane line is lane is formed by dropping a through lane, the ONLY word 100 to 150 ft. Three turn arrows are used for turn lanes marking is recommended. The solid 8-in.-wide lane line sep- where the length of the solid lane line is 150 to 200 ft. For arating the left-turn lane from the adjacent through lane be- turn lanes where the length of the solid lane line is more gins 10 ft after the top of the turn arrow that is lined up with than 200 ft, an additional turn arrow is added for each addi- the beginning of the full-width turn lane. tional 100 ft. The centerline extends beyond the stop line and terminates The solid 6-in.-wide lane line between the turn lane and at the nearest crosswalk line. The last 30 ft of the centerline the adjacent through lane starts a distance beyond the begin- (including the portion beyond the stop line) is a solid yellow ning of a short 50-ft taper. The distance is based on the design median that is 2 to 4 ft wide. (If space is limited, the solid yel- speed and varies from 70 to 170 ft for 35 to 65 mph. low median can be as narrow as 8 in. in width.) The double yellow centerline separates into a pair of double yellow cen- An 8-in. solid lane line is used to separate a lane that is terlines that taper away from each other to connect to the dropped as a turn lane from the adjacent through lane. edges of the solid yellow median. Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used in all An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow lanes where a through lane becomes a mandatory turn lane shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. and are installed such that the bottom of the letters is 15 ft from the bottom of each turn arrow. ILLINOIS An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow Spacing of turn arrows and ONLY word markings (measured shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. as the blank space between the bottom of one arrow or mes-

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79 sage to the top of the next arrow or message) is 20 ft in urban markings (measured as the blank space between the bottom areas and 50 ft in rural areas. of one arrow or message to the top of the next arrow or mes- sage) is 80 ft. The turn arrow nearest to the upstream end of An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow the lane line is positioned such that the bottom of the arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used in rural is lined up with the start of the lane line. areas and a shorter 6-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the shape of the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 KENTUCKY MUTCD is used in urban areas. Turn arrows shall be used in mandatory turn lanes at signal- INDIANA ized intersections. In situations where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes, turn arrows and ONLY word markings The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 20 ft shall be used. from the stop line. An ONLY word marking is placed upstream of the turn arrow such that the distance from the bottom of the Spacing of turn arrows and ONLY word markings shall turn arrow to the top of the letters of the ONLY word marking be no more than 80 ft and no less than 32 ft (measured as the is four times the character height for low-speed roadways and blank space between the bottom of one arrow or message to ten times the character height for high-speed roadways. Addi- the top of the next arrow or message), including the spacing tional turn arrows may be placed further upstream in the lane. between the first turn arrow and the stop line. The spacing should be selected to minimize the number of turn arrows A solid 4-in.-wide lane line is used between the turn lane and ONLY word markings in the turn lane. and the adjacent through lane. LOUISIANA IOWA The only turn lane illustrated in the standards is for an un- The tip of the arrowhead for the turn arrow nearest to the stop signalized approach. line is 25 ft from the stop line. If more than one turn arrow is used, the tips of the arrowheads for subsequent turn arrows The bottom of the turn arrow nearest to the intersection is are placed 75 ft from each other. If ONLY word markings are no more than 50 ft from the point of curvature for the edge used, they are centered in the 75-ft distance between the sub- of the turn lane. The bottom of an ONLY word marking is sequent arrows. separated from the bottom of the turn arrow by 25 ft. The solid 8-in.-wide lane line that separates the turn lane from the In situations where through lanes become mandatory turn adjacent through lane begins at the halfway point between lanes, turn arrows and ONLY word markings shall be used. the beginning of the full-width turn lane and the point of cur- Where a separate turn lane (left or right) is provided, lane- vature for the edge of the turn lane at the intersection. use arrows and ONLY word markings are not required. Additional turn arrows and ONLY word markings may be An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow placed in long turn lanes. Additional turn arrows shall be at shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. least 125 ft from subsequent arrows, and the bottoms of addi- tional ONLY word markings are separated from the bottom of their respective turn arrows by 25 ft. KANSAS The tip of the arrowhead for the turn arrow nearest to the stop MAINE line is at least 25 ft from the stop line. Spacing of turn arrows and ONLY word markings (measured as the blank space be- The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 20 ft (shown tween the bottom of one arrow or message to the top of the as 6 m) from the far side of the stop line. If ONLY messages next arrow or message) shall be no more than ten times the are not used, subsequent turn arrows are spaced such that the character height and no less than four times the character distance between the turn arrows (measured from the bottom height. The turn arrow nearest to the upstream end of the of one arrow to the top of the next arrow) is 53 ft (shown as 6-in.-wide solid lane line is positioned such that the bottom 16 m). If ONLY messages are used, the ONLY word marking of the arrow is lined up with the start of the lane line. is equally spaced between two turn arrows such that the bottom of the previous turn arrow and the top of the ONLY message is For lane drops, a 6-in.-wide solid lane line starts 561 ft 33 ft (shown as 10 m) and the bottom of the ONLY message upstream from the stop line, and turn arrows and ONLY word and the top of the next turn arrow is 33 ft (shown as 10 m). markings are used. The tip of the arrowhead for the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is at least 25 ft from the stop A solid 4-in.-wide lane line is used to separate the turn line. Spacing of alternating turn arrows and ONLY word lane from the adjacent through lane.

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80 An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow MICHIGAN shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. There are two methods to mark turn lanes. One method con- sists of turn arrows and ONLY word markings and the other MARYLAND method consists entirely of word messages. The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent If turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used, the top through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the halfway of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed at least 25 ft point of the full-width turn lane. A dotted line (3-ft segments from the stop line. The top of the letters of an ONLY word with 9-ft gaps) may be used from the halfway point to the end marking is placed a distance D from the bottom of the turn of the full-width turn lane. arrow. The distance D is based on the posted speed limit as follows: 32 ft for 25 mph or less, 48 ft for 30 or 35 mph, 64 ft In separate turn bays that are designed not to entrap through for 40 or 45 mph, and 80 ft for 50 mph or more. For turn lanes traffic, the dotted line portion of the lane line may be omit- that are 175 ft or less in length, only one turn arrow and one ted, turn arrows may be used, and ONLY word markings ONLY word marking are used. For turn lanes that are more should not be used. If turn arrows are used, the center of the than 175 ft in length, a second turn arrow and a second ONLY turn arrow nearest to the stop line should be approximately word marking are used. The second turn arrow and second 50 ft from the stop line. Additional turn arrows as determined ONLY word marking are positioned such that the bottom of by engineering analysis may be used in long turn bays. the letters of the ONLY word marking is lined up with the start of the solid 4-in.-wide lane line that is used to separate For dual turn lanes, turn arrows shall be placed in each the turn lane from the adjacent through lane, and such that lane at the halfway point of the full-width turn lanes. A sec- ond set of turn arrows may be placed in each lane halfway the bottom of the turn arrow is placed a distance D from the between the required arrows and the end of the full-width top of the letters of the ONLY word marking. turn lanes (three-quarters of the distance from the stop line to the end of the full-width turn lanes). If the method consisting entirely of word messages is used, the top of the letters of an ONLY word marking is placed at Turn arrows and ONLY word markings shall be used in least 25 ft from the stop line. The top of the letters of a TURN all lanes where a through lane becomes a mandatory turn message is placed a distance D from the bottom of the letters lane. The minimum configuration shall be an arrow-ONLY- of the ONLY word marking, and the top of the letters of a arrow sequence, with an equal distance of 40 to 90 ft be- LEFT message is placed a distance D from the bottom of the tween the center of the ONLY word marking and the cen- letters of the TURN message. The distance D is based on the ter in each direction of the next upstream and downstream posted speed limit as follows: 32 ft for 25 mph or less, 48 ft turn arrows. The center of the turn arrow nearest to the stop for 30 or 35 mph, 64 ft for 40 or 45 mph, and 80 ft for 50 mph line should be approximately 50 ft from the stop line. Sec- or more. tion 3B.19 of the Maryland supplement to the MUTCD has a chart that specifies (based on a variety of speeds) how to A solid 4-in.-wide lane line is used to separate the turn add more turn arrows and ONLY word markings to the lane lane from the adjacent through lane. The solid 4-in.-wide being dropped such that the first turn arrow encountered lane line starts at the point where the full width first becomes ranges from 375 ft from the stop line for a prevailing (not available for a left-turn lane and at least 25 ft from the point posted) speed of 25 mph to 800 ft from the stop line for a where the full width first becomes available for a right-turn prevailing speed of 55 mph. lane. For lane drops, the normal broken lane line shall become a An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow dotted line (3-ft segments with 9-ft gaps) beginning at the first shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. turn arrow, and shall become a solid lane line at the halfway point between the first turn arrow and the stop line. MINNESOTA MASSACHUSETTS If the length of the full-width turn lane is 200 ft or less, a sin- gle turn arrow is placed in the lane at the point that is halfway The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 20 ft between the stop line and the end of the full-width turn lane. (shown as 6 m) from the stop line. If ONLY messages are The lane line that is used to separate the turn lane from the used, the top of the ONLY word marking is at least 32 ft adjacent through lane starts 50 ft after the turn lane becomes (shown as 9.8 m) from the bottom of the turn arrow. full width. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than 200 ft, shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. two turn arrows are placed in the lane. The top of the turn

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81 arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 30 to 80 ft from the NEVADA stop line. The bottom of the other turn arrow is placed 20 ft beyond the beginning of the solid lane line that is used to sep- An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane arate the turn lane from the adjacent through lane. The lane and the adjacent through lane. The length of this lane line is line that is used to separate the turn lane from the adjacent two-thirds of the length of the full-width turn lane. through lane starts 50 ft after the turn lane becomes full width. If the length of the solid lane line is less than 55 ft, a single An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow turn arrow is used and it is placed such that the top of the turn shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. arrow is 8 ft from the stop line. If the length of the solid lane line is 55 ft to 95 ft, an ONLY word marking and a turn arrow are used, with the top of the letters of the ONLY word mark- MISSISSIPPI ing placed 8 ft from the stop line, and the bottom of the turn arrow lined up with the end of the lane line. (This is reverse An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow reading with drivers encountering the turn arrow first and shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. the ONLY word marking second.) If the length of the solid lane line is more than 95 ft, an alternating series of turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used, with the top of the turn MISSOURI arrow nearest to the stop line placed 8 ft from the stop line The turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 75 ft from the stop and with the spacing between the bottom of subsequent turn line. Two turn arrows are used for the first 200 ft of turn lane arrows or ONLY word markings being 32 to 80 ft from the and one additional turn arrow is placed for every additional top of the next turn arrow or ONLY word marking. 400 ft of turn lane. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. NEW HAMPSHIRE MONTANA Specific layouts of turn arrows and ONLY word markings are A turn arrow and an ONLY word marking are used in manda- given for the following lengths of solid lane lines between the tory turn lanes. A second turn arrow and ONLY word mark- turn lane and the adjacent through lane: 100 ft, 150 ft, 200 ft, ing are used if the AADT exceeds 5,000 or if the length of 250 ft, 300 ft, and 350 ft. For a 100-ft lane line, an ONLY the turn lane is more than 150 ft. The turn arrow nearest to word marking and a turn arrow are used, with the bottom of the stop line is at least 20 ft from the stop line. The distance the letters of the ONLY word marking placed 40 ft from the between turn arrows and ONLY word markings in the turn stop line, and the bottom of the turn arrow lined up with the lane is not specified, but it is clear that each ONLY word end of the lane line. (This is reverse reading with drivers marking appears just before the bottom of the turn arrow so encountering the turn arrow first and the ONLY word mark- that they function as a single message. The spacing between ing second.) For 150-ft and 200-ft lane lines, a turn arrow is successive sets of turn arrows and ONLY word markings placed such that the bottom of the arrow is 40 ft from the stop varies with the design speed, and it is suggested that a spac- line, a second turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of the ing of approximately four times the character height be used arrow is lined up with the end of the lane line, and an ONLY on low-speed facilities (45 mph or less) and up to ten times word marking is placed halfway between the two turn arrows. the character height be used on high-speed facilities (50 mph For 250-ft, 300-ft, and 350-ft lane lines, a turn arrow is placed or more). such that the bottom of the arrow is 40 ft from the stop line, a second turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of the The 8-in.-wide solid lane line between the turn lane and arrow is lined up with the end of the lane line, a third turn the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends 20 ft arrow is placed halfway between the other two turn arrows, before the point where the full-width turn lane begins. and two ONLY word markings are placed at the halfway points between the three turn arrows. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow A broken lane line is used before the solid lane line be- shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. tween the turn lane and the adjacent through lane, even for turn lanes that are formed by a taper. The length of the bro- NEBRASKA ken lane line and the number of additional turn arrows is based on the posted speed limit. For speed limits of 40 mph The 4-in.-wide solid lane line between the turn lane and the or less, one additional turn arrow is placed in the turn lane, adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the and for speed limits of 45 mph or more, two additional turn beginning of the full-width turn lane. arrows are placed in the turn lane.

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82 An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow the arrow is lined up with the end of the full-width turn lane. shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. A third turn arrow is centered between the other two. Addi- tional arrows may be used if the turn lane is long. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane and NEW YORK the adjacent through lane. This lane line starts at the stop line and ends 250 ft from the stop line. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide dot- The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed ted line (2-ft segments with 13-ft gaps) starts at the end of the 21 ft (shown as 6.5 m) from the stop line. Each turn arrow is lane line and ends at the beginning of the left-turn lane taper. accompanied by an ONLY word marking that is placed such that the tops of the letters of the ONLY word marking are Two sets of pavement markings (with each set comprised 5 ft from the bottom of the turn arrow. If the length of the of two turn arrows and one ONLY word marking) are used full-width turn lane is less than 90 ft, only one turn arrow and in all lanes where a through lane becomes a mandatory turn ONLY word marking is provided. If the length of the full- lane. In each set, the ONLY word marking is placed halfway width turn lane is between 90 and 135 ft, a second turn arrow between the two turn arrows whose tops are placed 150 ft and ONLY word marking is provided with the distance be- apart. In the first set, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the tween the top of the second turn arrow 25 to 65 ft (shown as stop line is placed 50 ft from the stop line. In the second set, 7.5 to 20 m) from the bottom of the letters of the first ONLY the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed word marking. If the length of the full-width turn lane is be- 350 ft from the stop line if the speed limit is 35 mph or less, tween 135 and 250 ft, a second turn arrow and ONLY word 400 ft from the stop line if the speed limit is 40 to 50 mph, or marking is provided with the distance between the top of the 650 ft from the stop line if the speed limit is 55 mph or more. second turn arrow 65 ft (shown as 20 m) from the bottom of the letters of the first ONLY word marking. If the length of the A 200-ft solid lane line that is 4-in. to 6-in.-wide is used full-width turn lane is between 250 and 500 ft, a second turn to separate a lane that is dropped as a turn lane from the adja- arrow and ONLY word marking is provided with the dis- cent through lane. tance between the top of the second turn arrow 65 ft (shown as 20 m) from the bottom of the letters of the first ONLY An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow word marking, and a third turn arrow and ONLY word mark- shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. ing is provided with the bottom of the ONLY word marking being 33 ft (shown as 10 m) from the start of the full-width turn lane. NORTH DAKOTA An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. and the adjacent through lane. Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used in turn NORTH CAROLINA lanes. The top of the letters of an ONLY word marking are typically placed 44 ft, but no less than 32 ft, from the bottom If the length of the full-width turn lane is less than 125 ft, a of the next downstream turn arrow. single turn arrow is placed halfway between the stop line and the end of the full-width turn lane. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow lane line is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. lane. This lane line starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lanes. OHIO If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than 125 ft but less than 250 ft, two turn arrows are placed in the lane. The Lane use arrows should be used in all turn lanes. ONLY word top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 50 ft markings may be used if there is a need. from the stop line. The other turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of the arrow is lined up with the end of the full- In urban areas, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop width turn lane. A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid lane line is used line is placed at least 10 ft from the downstream edge of the between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. This stop line. A 6-ft tall ONLY word marking is placed such that lane line starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the tops of the letters of the ONLY word marking are 24 to the full-width turn lanes. 60 ft from the bottom of the turn arrow. A second turn arrow is placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 24 to 60 ft from If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than 250 ft, the bottoms of the letters of the ONLY word marking. three turn arrows are placed in the lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed 50 ft from the stop In rural areas, the top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line. A second turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of line is placed at least 30 ft from the downstream edge of the

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83 stop line. An 8-ft tall ONLY word marking is placed such that An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn bay the tops of the letters of the ONLY word marking are 32 to and the adjacent through lane. 80 ft from the bottom of the turn arrow. A second turn arrow is placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 32 to 80 ft from Two turn arrows are required in a dropped lane, but the the bottoms of the letters of the ONLY word marking. use of an ONLY word marking is still optional. An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane An 8-in.-wide solid line preceded by an 8-in.-wide dotted and the adjacent through lane. line (3-ft segments separated by 9-ft gaps) is placed in ad- vance of an intersection where the outside lane is dropped as (Section 301-8 of Ohio's Traffic Engineering Manual says a mandatory turn lane. The lengths of these lines are not that the spacing between turn arrows and between turn arrows specified. and ONLY word markings should be ten times the height of the characters.) An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. An elon- An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow gated 12-ft-long turn arrow is also available. shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. An elongated 12-ft-long turn arrow is also available. PENNSYLVANIA OKLAHOMA Where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes, turn arrows are required and ONLY word markings are optional. Turn arrows are required in turn lanes, but ONLY word mark- For other turn lanes, both the turn arrows and ONLY word ings are optional. markings are optional. The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent A 4-in. or 6-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning turn lane and the adjacent through lane. The length of this of the full-width turn lane. lane line should be two-thirds of the length of the full-width turn lane. If the length of the turn lane is less than 100 ft, only one turn arrow is used with the top placed 20 ft from the stop line, The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is at least and an optional ONLY word marking may be provided with 20 ft from the stop line. The spacing between additional turn the top of the letters 35 ft upstream from the top of the turn arrows and ONLY word markings should be four times the arrow. If the length of the full-width turn lane is 100 to 149 ft, letter or symbol height for speeds of 35 mph or less, and should a second turn arrow is provided with the top of the turn arrow be ten times the letter or symbol height for speeds of more 35 ft upstream from the top of the letters of the ONLY word than 35 mph. marking. If the length of the full-width turn lane is 150 to 200 ft, the top of the turn arrow that is nearest the stop line is The 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow placed 30 ft from the stop line, an optional ONLY word mark- shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is not used. An ing may be provided with the top of the letters 55 ft upstream elongated 12-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn from the top of the turn arrow, and a second turn arrow is pro- arrow shown on Page 10-11 of the Standard Highway Signs vided with the top of the turn arrow 35 ft upstream from the Book is the only style of turn arrow that is available for use. top of the letters of the ONLY word marking. No informa- tion is given for turn lanes that are longer than 200 ft. RHODE ISLAND An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. ONLY word markings should only be used where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes. OREGON SOUTH CAROLINA The tip of the arrowhead for the required turn arrow in a turn lane is 10 ft downstream from the beginning of the full-width Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are typically not used turn lane. A second turn arrow may be used and is placed in turn bays and will be placed only at locations specifically such that the tip of the arrowhead is 10 ft from the stop line. shown on construction plans. If an optional ONLY word marking is used, then the second turn arrow 10 ft from the stop line is required. The top of the Two turn arrows each accompanied by an ONLY word letters of the ONLY word marking are placed 30 ft upstream marking are used when a through lane becomes a mandatory from the bottom of the turn arrow nearest the stop line. turn lane.

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84 A broken lane line (10-ft segments with 30-ft gaps) is used are required where a movement that would otherwise be legal between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. is to be prohibited. The center of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 20 ft SOUTH DAKOTA from the stop line. The center of the letters of an ONLY word marking is placed 30 ft upstream from the center of the turn The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 17 ft from arrow nearest the stop line. The center of the next turn arrow the stop line. A second turn arrow is placed such that the bot- tom of the arrow is lined up with the beginning of the full- is placed 30 ft upstream from the center of the letters of the width turn lane. If additional turn arrows are needed, they are ONLY word marking. equally spaced between the two required turn arrows. An 8-in.-wide solid lane line that is at least 100 ft long is The 4-in.-wide solid lane line between the turn lane and used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lane. VERMONT TENNESSEE The 4-in.-wide solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the Turn arrows are typically used in mandatory turn lanes. In beginning of the full-width turn lane. situations where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes, an ONLY word marking is required for each turn arrow. If the length of the turn lane is less than 100 ft, only one turn arrow and ONLY word marking is provided with the bottom If the length of the turn lane is less than 150 ft, only one of the letters of the ONLY word marking lined up with the turn arrow is used with the top placed 50 ft from the stop line. beginning of the full-width turn lane and the turn arrow placed If the length of the full-width turn lane is 150 to 200 ft, a sec- such that the bottom of the arrow is 4 ft downstream from the ond turn arrow is provided with the bottom of the turn arrow top of the letters of the ONLY word marking. If the length of 25 ft downstream from the beginning of the full-width turn the full-width turn lane is 100 to 200 ft, a second turn arrow lane. If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than and ONLY word marking is provided with the top of the turn 200 ft, additional turn arrows may be equally spaced between arrow placed 4 ft from the stop line and the ONLY word the two required turn arrows. marking placed such that the top of the letters of the ONLY word marking is 4 ft upstream from the bottom of the arrow. The 4-in.-wide solid lane line between the turn lane and If the length of the full-width turn lane is more than 200 ft, the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at additional sets of turn arrows and ONLY word markings are the beginning of the full-width turn lane. provided. At unsignalized, non-stopping approaches, the solid lane TEXAS line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane is Two sets of turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used extended and curved into the intersection until the first con- in turn lanes that are 180 ft or more in length. The top of the flict point is reached. turn arrow nearest to the stop line is typically 32 ft from the stop line. The top of the letters of the ONLY word marking An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow are placed 32 ft upstream from the bottom of the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. nearest the stop line. A second turn arrow and a second ONLY word marking are placed 32 ft apart at an unspecified dis- VIRGINIA tance upstream in the turn lane. The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent An 8-in.-wide solid lane line is used between the turn lane through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning and the adjacent through lane. of the full-width turn lane. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow If the length of the turn lane is 300 ft or less, two turn shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. arrows are provided with the bottom of the turn arrow near- est to the stop line located 50 ft from the stop line and the bot- UTAH tom of the other turn arrow lined up with the end of the full- width turn lane. If the length of the full-width turn lane is Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are optional for turn more than 300 ft, a third turn arrow is placed at the midpoint lanes, except both the turn arrows and ONLY word markings of the full-width turn lane.

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85 WASHINGTON If the length of the turn lane is more than 167 ft, two sets of turn arrows and ONLY word markings are provided (with the The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent bottoms of the turn arrows located 32 ft upstream from the top through lane starts at the stop line and ends 50 ft downstream of the letters of the ONLY word marking) with the bottom of from the beginning of the full-width turn lane. the letters of an ONLY word marking placed 20 ft down- stream from the beginning of the full-width turn lane and the The turn arrow nearest to the stop line is 50 ft from the turn arrow nearest to the stop line typically placed such that stop line. A second turn arrow is placed 100 ft upstream or the top of the arrow is 20 ft from the stop line. such that the center of the turn arrow is lined up with the beginning of the solid lane line. An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. The 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is not used. An elongated 12-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn WYOMING arrow shown on Page 10-11 of the Standard Highway Signs Book is the only style of turn arrow that is available for use. For right-turn lanes, the 8-in.-wide solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the midpoint of the full-width turn lane. An WEST VIRGINIA optional 4-in.-wide dotted line (2-ft segments with 6-ft gaps) may be placed from the upstream end of the taper to the end A 6-in. to 8-in.-wide solid lane line with a maximum length of the solid lane line. of 200 ft is used between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane. A broken lane line is used between the turn lane For left-turn lanes, the 8-in.-wide solid lane line between and the adjacent through lane for the remainder of a full- the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop width turn lane that is longer than 200 ft. line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lane. The bottom of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is Turn arrows are optional in mandatory turn lanes, except 50 ft from the stop line. Additional turn arrows are placed in in situations where through lanes become mandatory turn the turn lane at a spacing of 72 ft (measured from the bottom lanes, and two turn arrows and an ONLY word marking are of the turn arrow to the top of the next upstream turn arrow) required. for speeds of 40 mph or less and 168 ft for speeds higher than 40 mph. If ONLY word markings are used, they are placed The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed halfway between the turn arrows. Where a movement that 20 ft from the stop line. An ONLY word marking is placed would otherwise be legal is to be prohibited, ONLY word such that the top of the letters of the ONLY word marking markings are required. are 32 ft from the bottom of the turn arrow. If additional turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used, they are placed An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow such that the top of the turn arrow or ONLY word marking shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. is 32 ft from the bottom of the upstream turn arrow or ONLY word marking. WISCONSIN An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. The 8-in.-wide solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning of the full-width turn lane. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA If the length of the turn lane is less than 108 ft, only one An 8-in.-wide broken line is used between the turn lane and turn arrow and ONLY word marking is provided with the bot- the adjacent through lane. tom of the letters of the ONLY word marking typically 20 ft downstream from the beginning of the full-width turn lane Turn arrow or ONLY word markings are spaced 32 ft and the turn arrow typically placed such that the top of the apart, unless otherwise noted in plans. turn arrow is 20 ft from the stop line. If the length of the turn lane is 108 to 167 ft, two turn arrows and an ONLY word Markings in turn lanes start with a turn arrow, followed marking are provided with the top of the turn arrow nearest to by an ONLY word marking, and ending with an arrow near the stop line typically placed 20 ft from the stop line, another the stop line, all of which fits within the 90-ft distance of the turn arrow is placed such that the bottom of the arrow is lined solid lane line between the through lanes. In longer turn lanes, up with the beginning of the full-width turn lane, and the the markings start with a turn arrow, followed by an ONLY ONLY word marking placed halfway between the turn arrows. word marking, followed by another turn arrow, followed by

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86 another ONLY word marking, and ending with an arrow near If the speed limit is 40 mph or more, the same markings as the stop line. for a 35 mph speed limit are used in the dropped lane, except that an additional turn arrow is placed upstream from the other six markings such that the top of the additional turn arrow is PUERTO RICO 150 ft from the bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. of the full-width turn lane. Two sets of turn arrows and SOLO messages are provided LOS ANGELES, CA in the turn lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is placed an unspecified distance from the stop line. A The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent SOLO message is placed such that the top of the letters of the through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning SOLO message are 33 ft upstream from the bottom of the of the full-width turn lane. turn arrow. A second turn arrow and a second SOLO mes- sage are also used. The second set is placed such that the bot- Typically, only one turn arrow is used and it is installed tom of the SOLO message is lined up with the beginning of such that the bottom of the turn arrow is lined up with the the full-width turn lane. The bottom of the second turn arrow beginning of the full-width turn lane. If the turn lane is longer is placed 33 ft downstream from the top of the letters of the than 250 ft, a second turn arrow is placed at the midpoint of second SOLO message. the full-width turn lane. A turn arrow is only placed near the stop line if required by Caltrans on freeway ramps and other An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow state highway intersections. shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. NEW YORK, NY CHARLOTTE, NC An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow shown Turn arrows are required in mandatory turn lanes, but ONLY in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. Elongated lane- word markings are not used except in situations where through use arrows are also available for use. lanes become mandatory turn lanes. TUCSON/PIMA COUNTY, AZ The number of turn arrows depends on the length of the turn lane. The top of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is The solid lane line between the turn lane and the adjacent placed 25 ft from the stop line. The next two turn arrows are through lane starts at the stop line and ends at the beginning placed such that the top of the turn arrow is 50 ft from the of the full-width turn lane. bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. The next three turn arrows are placed such that the top of the turn arrow is At least two turn arrows are placed in turn lanes. The top 100 ft from the bottom of the next downstream turn arrow. If of the turn arrow nearest to the stop line is typically placed any additional turn arrows are needed, they are placed such 20 ft from the stop line. The bottom of the other turn arrow that the top of the turn arrow is 150 ft from the bottom of the is lined up with the beginning of the full-width turn lane. If next downstream turn arrow. the turn lane is 108 to 200 ft in length, an ONLY word mark- ing is placed halfway between the two turn arrows. If the turn Turn arrows and ONLY word markings are used in situa- lane is more than 200 ft in length, an ONLY word marking tions where through lanes become mandatory turn lanes. and a third turn arrow are placed at one-third points between the two turn arrows, with the ONLY word marking placed If the speed limit is 35 mph, a sequence of four turn closer to the stop line than the third turn arrow. arrows and two ONLY word markings is used in the down- stream direction in the dropped lane as follows: a turn arrow, Lane-reduction arrows and warning signs are used to an ONLY word marking, two turn arrows, another ONLY move through traffic out of a dropped lane before the turn word marking, and a turn arrow. The top of the turn arrow lane markings are started. nearest to the stop line is placed 25 ft from the stop line. The next two markings are placed such that the top of the turn An 8-ft-long turn arrow that is similar to the turn arrow arrow or ONLY word marking is 50 ft from the bottom of shown in Figure 3B-21 of the 2003 MUTCD is used. the next downstream marking. The next three markings are placed such that the top of the turn arrow or ONLY word No standards were found for: marking is 100 ft from the bottom of the next downstream marking. New Jersey New Mexico