Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 98


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 97
97 APPENDIX I Crosswalks and Stop Lines ALABAMA Crosswalks are located at least 3 ft from the extended edge line of the street that is parallel to the crosswalk. Crosswalks should be at least 10 ft wide. High-visibility crosswalks are shown, but dimensions are High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide not specified. transverse crosswalk lines supplemented with 24-in. longitu- dinal lines separated by 24-in. spaces. A 12-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 5 ft from inter- section crosswalks. CALIFORNIA High-visibility crosswalks should be used for school crosswalks. Transverse crosswalk lines shall be not less than 12 in. or greater than 24 in. wide. ALASKA Crosswalk markings near schools shall be yellow. Standard crosswalks should be at least 10 ft wide. The trans- The nearest edge of the crosswalk line is located at least verse crosswalk lines shall be 24 in. wide. The crosswalk line 6 ft from the extended edge line of the street that is parallel nearest to the approach lane also serves as the stop line for to the crosswalk. the approach. A stop line not less than 12 in. or greater than 24 in. wide High-visibility crosswalks should be at least 10 ft wide. is located at least 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. The longitudinal lines should be 24 to 36 in. wide separated by 24-in. to 36-in. spaces. The spacing design should avoid wheel paths. COLORADO Standard crosswalks should be used at signals and on Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse approaches controlled by STOP signs. High-visibility cross- crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide unless no stop line is pro- walks should be used for all other locations. vided, in which case the transverse crosswalk lines are 24 in. wide. ARIZONA High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in. to Standard crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. The transverse 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are 8 to 10 ft in length. crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. These longitudinal lines are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide lanes to avoid wheel paths. transverse crosswalk lines supplemented with 24-in. longitu- dinal lines separated by 24-in. spaces. High-visibility crosswalks are used at complicated and/or channelized intersections and at midblock crosswalks. An 18-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. Midblock crosswalks are 15 ft wide. Stop lines at mid- block signalized locations should be placed at least 40 ft in CONNECTICUT advance of the far side signal indication. All crosswalks are of the high-visibility type. ARKANSAS Typical crosswalks are comprised of 16-in.-wide longitu- Standard crosswalks are 10 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk dinal lines that are at least 8 ft in length at intersections and lines are 12 in. wide. 10 ft in length for midblock locations. These longitudinal

OCR for page 97
98 lines are parallel to the approach lanes and are separated by HAWAII 16-in. spaces. The typical crosswalk width is 10 ft. For school, elderly, and handicapped crosswalks, 24-in.- wide longitudinal lines that are at least 8 ft in length at inter- High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 8-in.-wide sections and 10 ft in length for midblock locations are used. transverse crosswalk lines that are at least 8 in. wide sup- These longitudinal lines are parallel to the approach lanes plemented with sets of longitudinal lines (with two sets of and are separated by 24-in. spaces. longitudinal lines per lane). Each set of longitudinal lines is 16 in. wide and is comprised of three 4-in.-wide lines sepa- Special crosswalk markings may be used for an exclusive rated by gaps of 2 in. The gap between sets of longitudinal pedestrian signal phase where all vehicles are stopped and lines is 28 in. pedestrians can cross all legs of the intersection or can cross diagonally. These markings feature a single line that com- Stop lines are 12 in. wide. pletely crosses each leg of the intersection. IDAHO A stop line that is at least 12 in. wide is located at least 4 ft from the intersection crosswalks. The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. DELAWARE Standard crosswalks are comprised of transverse cross- walk lines that are at least 12 in. wide. The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of transverse Stop lines are 16 in. wide. crosswalk lines that are at least 12 in. wide supplemented with 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines separated by 24-in. spaces. FLORIDA A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft, but a crosswalk width of 10 ft is desirable. The use of urban midblock crosswalks, except in special cases, should be discouraged. Midblock crosswalks cause Standard crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide trans- vehicularpedestrian conflicts, additional vehicle delay, dis- verse crosswalk lines. rupt traffic signal progression, and present an unexpected pedestrian problem to the driver who normally expects these High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide conflicts only at intersections. Midblock crosswalks some- longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. times have sight distance restrictions because of parked vehi- cles. Drivers do not respect midblock crosswalks as much as A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- crosswalks at intersections. Pedestrians have a false assump- section crosswalks. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least tion that marked crosswalks provide them protection, caus- 40 ft from the center of signalized midblock crosswalks. ing an extra problem at midblock locations where both the pedestrian and motorists might not be alert. GEORGIA The minimum crosswalk width is 8 ft (measured to the out- ILLINOIS side edges of the 8-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines) or the width of the sidewalk, whichever is greater. However, the Because midblock crosswalks are generally unexpected by edge of the crosswalk should not be more than 1 ft beyond the motorist, diagonal or longitudinal lines should be used in the edge of the sidewalk. marking midblock crosswalks. All crosswalks are of the high-visibility type. INDIANA High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 8-in.-wide The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. transverse crosswalk lines supplemented with sets of longi- tudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are Standard crosswalks are comprised of transverse cross- centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to walk lines that are at least 6 in. wide. avoid wheel paths. Each set of longitudinal lines is 24 in. wide and is comprised of two 8-in.-wide lines separated by a A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- gap of 8 in. section crosswalks.

OCR for page 97
99 IOWA Across roadways where the speed limit is greater than 35 mph, at midblock locations, at unexpected locations, and The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft (measured to the out- at school crosswalks, the transverse crosswalk lines shall be side edges of the transverse crosswalk lines). The trans- at least 12 in. wide. At such locations, the space between the verse crosswalk lines are 6 to 24 in. wide. transverse lines may be hatched with 12-in. to 24-in. diago- nal or longitudinal lines spaced 12 to 24 in. apart. For added visibility, the area of the crosswalk may be marked with diagonal lines at a 45 angle to the line of the A 16-in.-wide stop line (when the approach speed limit is crosswalk or with longitudinal lines parallel to traffic flow. 35 mph or lower) or a 24-in.-wide stop line (when the approach When diagonal or longitudinal lines are used to mark the cross- speed limit is more than 35 mph) is located at least 4 ft from walk, the transverse lines may be omitted. If used, the diago- intersection crosswalks. nal or longitudinal lines should be 12 to 24 in. wide and spaced 12 to 24 in. apart. The spacing should avoid the wheel paths. MICHIGAN A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- section crosswalks. Crosswalks at intersections are the same width as the adjacent sidewalk, but the minimum crosswalk width at intersections and at midblock locations is 6 ft. KANSAS The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Standard crosswalks Standard crosswalks are comprised of 6-in.-wide trans- are comprised of 12-in.-wide transverse lines. verse crosswalk lines. High-visibility crosswalks are 8 ft wide and are comprised High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks and 4 ft from midblock crosswalks. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 5 ft from inter- section crosswalks. MINNESOTA KENTUCKY Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 to 12 in. wide. Standard crosswalks are comprised of transverse cross- High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24- to 36-in.- walk lines that are 6 or 12 in. wide. wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes A 12-in. or 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are separated by intersection crosswalks. 30- to 42-in. spaces. The widths of the longitudinal lines and the spaces between them are specified in a chart that is based LOUISIANA on the width of the inside lane (left-most through lane). A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- Stop lines are 12 to 24 in. wide. section crosswalks. MISSOURI MAINE Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. The transverse cross- walk lines are 6 in. wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 in. wide. A 12-in. to 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 30- to 36-in.- from intersection crosswalks. wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach MARYLAND lanes to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are sepa- rated by 30- to 36-in. spaces. The widths of the longitudinal The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft. Crosswalks are typi- lines and the spaces between them are based on the lane cally comprised of 12-in.-wide transverse crosswalk lines. width, with 30-in. lines and 30-in. spaces for 10-ft-wide lanes,

OCR for page 97
100 33-in. lines and 33-in. spaces for 11-ft-wide lanes, and 36-in. NEW HAMPSHIRE lines and 36-in. spaces for 12-ft-wide lanes. The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft (shown as 2 m) mea- A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection sured from center to center of the transverse crosswalk lines. crosswalks. The transverse crosswalk lines are at least 6 in. wide. For added visibility, the area of the crosswalk may be MONTANA marked with diagonal lines at a 45 angle to the line of the crosswalk or with white longitudinal lines parallel to traffic Transverse crosswalks are normally 8 ft wide, but should be flow. When longitudinal lines are used to mark the crosswalk, at least 6 ft wide. Transverse crosswalk lines are normally the transverse lines may be omitted. If used, the diagonal or 8 in. wide, but should be at least 6 in. wide. The width of longitudinal lines should be 24 in. wide and spaced 24 in. apart. transverse crosswalk lines may be increased to 24 in. wide in areas where posted speed limits exceed 35 mph (shown An 18-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from as 60 km/h), where a stop line is not provided, and in areas intersection crosswalks. where crosswalks would not normally be expected. High-visibility crosswalks are 8 ft wide. High-visibility NEW YORK crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. The minimum crosswalk width is 6 ft (shown as 2 m). The transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- walks. High-visibility crosswalks are 6 ft wide (shown as 2 m). High-visibility crosswalks are typically comprised of 24-in.- wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 48-in. spaces. NEBRASKA The transverse lines may be used in combination with high- visibility crosswalks or may be omitted. Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. An 18-in.-wide stop line is typically used, but the designer Transverse crosswalk lines are at least 6 in. wide. may also specify a 12-in. or 24-in.-wide stop line. The stop line is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes NORTH CAROLINA to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are separated by up to 48-in. spaces. Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. A 12-in.-wide stop line (if needed) is located 4 ft from intersection crosswalks. High-visibility crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. High- visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudi- nal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. NEVADA A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- All crosswalks are of the high-visibility type. walks. Crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. NORTH DAKOTA In District 1, crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and Standard crosswalks are typically 6 ft wide. The transverse are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes crosswalk lines are 6 in. wide. to avoid wheel paths. In Districts 2 and 3, crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are sepa- A 24-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from inter- rated by 24-in. spaces. section crosswalks. A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- OHIO section crosswalks. Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse Stop lines at midblock crosswalks are located 30 ft from crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide at intersections and 24 in. wide the nearest edge of the crosswalk. at midblock locations.

OCR for page 97
101 Stop lines are 24 in. wide. (measured perpendicular to the diagonal lines) with the trans- verse lines also provided. Special crosswalk markings may be used for an exclusive pedestrian signal phase where all vehicles are stopped and A 12- to 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from inter- pedestrians can cross all legs of the intersection or can cross section crosswalks. diagonally. These markings feature a single line that com- pletely crosses each leg of the intersection. If yield lines are used at unsignalized midblock crosswalks, they should be placed 20 to 50 ft in advance of the crosswalk. OKLAHOMA Special crosswalk markings may be used for an exclusive Crosswalks are 8 ft wide. pedestrian signal phase where all vehicles are stopped and pedestrians can cross all legs of the intersection or can cross Transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. diagonally. These markings feature a single line that com- pletely crosses each leg of the intersection. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 36-in. spaces. RHODE ISLAND A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection Standard crosswalks with transverse lines only are the only crosswalks. type of crosswalk that can be used at intersections. High-visibility crosswalks should be used for midblock OREGON crosswalks. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide diagonal lines that are separated by 30-in. spaces Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide, but a width of 10 ft is with the transverse lines also provided. desired. Transverse crosswalk lines are at least 12 in. wide. On SOUTH CAROLINA state highways with posted speed limits of 55 mph or more, transverse crosswalk lines are at least 18 in. wide. Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. High-visibility crosswalks may be comprised of 24-in.- Transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from inter- lanes to avoid wheel paths. The longitudinal lines are sepa- section crosswalks. rated by 36- to 48-in. spaces. SOUTH DAKOTA High-visibility crosswalks may also be comprised of sets of two 12-in.-wide longitudinal lines separated by 12-in. spaces The only crosswalk shown in the standards is a high-visibility that are parallel to the approach lanes. The gaps between the crosswalk that is comprised of 24-in. longitudinal lines sepa- two longitudinal lines in each set are centered on lane lines rated by 24-in. spaces. The minimum width of the crosswalk and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. is 8 ft. When transverse crosswalk lines are used, the crosswalk A 24-in.-wide stop line is located 4 ft from intersection line nearest to the approach lane is used as the stop line. If crosswalks. transverse crosswalk lines are not used, the stop line is 12 to 18 in. wide in urban areas and 18 to 24 in. wide in rural areas. TENNESSEE PENNSYLVANIA Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. Crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. High-visibility crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. High- Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 to 24 in. wide. visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudi- nal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. High-visibility crosswalks may be comprised of 12- to 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are separated by 12- to The nearest edge of the crosswalk line shall be located at 60-in. spaces without the transverse lines, or of 12- to 24-in.- least 2 ft from the extended edge line of the street that is par- wide diagonal lines that are separated by 12- to 60-in. spaces allel to the crosswalk.

OCR for page 97
102 A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- lel to the approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and walks. the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. A 12-in.- wide longitudinal line may be placed on paved shoulders that are 4 ft wide or less to extend the crosswalk to the edge of the TEXAS pavement. A 24-in.-wide longitudinal line may be placed on paved shoulders that are more than 4 ft wide to extend the Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse crosswalk to the edge of the pavement. crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. If local agencies desire to do so, they can use two 8-in- High-visibility crosswalks may be used. High-visibility wide longitudinal lines that are separated by an 8 in. space as crosswalks are comprised of 12- to 24-in.-wide longitudinal a substitute for the 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines. An addi- lines that are separated by 12- to 24-in. spaces. The transverse tional 8-in.-wide longitudinal line may be placed on paved lines may be used in combination with high-visibility cross- shoulders that are 4 ft wide or less to extend the crosswalk to walks or may be omitted. the edge of the pavement. A 24-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from cross- A stop line is located 4 ft from crosswalks. walks. WEST VIRGINIA UTAH The outside edges of crosswalks (the edge farthest from the Standard crosswalks are typically 10 ft wide (measured to the intersection) are at least 6 ft from the extension of the edge outside edges of the transverse crosswalk lines). The trans- of the cross street. verse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. The transverse crosswalk lines for standard crosswalks High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide are 6 to 24 in. wide. The 24-in. lines are used where no stop longitudinal or diagonal lines that are separated by 24-in. line is present, where speeds are more than 35 mph, or where spaces. The transverse lines are omitted. The high-visibility crosswalks are unexpected. crosswalk with the longitudinal lines is used for school crossings. The high-visibility crosswalk with the diagonal High-visibility crosswalks may be used for added visibil- lines is used only when permitted by the region traffic ity. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12- to 24-in.- engineer. wide diagonal lines that are separated by 12- to 24-in. spaces. The transverse lines may be used in combination with high- A 12-in.-wide stop line is typically located 4 ft from cross- visibility crosswalks or may be omitted. walks. A 12-in.-wide stop line is used. VERMONT High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide diag- WISCONSIN onal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces with 12-in.-wide Standard crosswalks are at least 6 ft wide. The transverse transverse lines also provided. High-visibility crosswalks are crosswalk lines are at least 6 in. wide. at least 6 ft wide (measured to the inside edges of the trans- verse crosswalk lines). Stop lines are typically 18 in. wide, but can vary from 12 to 24 in. in width. Stop lines are located at least 4 ft from A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from cross- crosswalks. walks. WYOMING VIRGINIA The only crosswalk shown in the standards is a 12-ft-wide A 24-in.-wide stop line is located at least 4 ft from crosswalks. high-visibility crosswalk. The standard width of the longitu- dinal lines is 18 in., but can vary from 12 to 24 in. The spac- WASHINGTON ing of the longitudinal lines is normally 6 ft center-to-center to avoid the wheel paths. High-visibility crosswalks are typically 8 ft wide. They are comprised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are sepa- Stop lines are 24 in. wide and are located from 4 to 30 ft rated by spaces that are up to 60-in.-wide and that are paral- from crosswalks.

OCR for page 97
103 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Stop lines are placed 5 ft from midblock high-visibility crosswalks. Crosswalks are 15 ft wide unless otherwise noted on the plans. Whenever possible, crosswalks are at least 20 ft wide in the downtown central business district. NEW YORK, NY Transverse crosswalk lines are 6 in. wide. Crosswalks are 8 to 18 ft wide. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 24-in.-wide Transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide. longitudinal lines that are separated by 24-in. spaces. High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of 12-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the approach lanes and PUERTO RICO separated by 24-in. spaces. The transverse lines may be used in combination with high-visibility crosswalks or may be omitted. Crosswalks can be standard crosswalks with transverse lines or high-visibility crosswalks with longitudinal lines. Stop lines are 24 in. wide and are located 5 ft from cross- walks. STOP messages are placed in approach lanes such that the top of the letters is 10 ft upstream from the stop line. CHARLOTTE, NC Standard crosswalks are at least 10 ft wide. The transverse TUCSON/PIMA COUNTY, AZ crosswalk lines are 8 in. wide. Crosswalks are 10 ft wide. LOS ANGELES, CA Transverse crosswalk lines are 12 in. wide, except that transverse crosswalk lines are 24 in. wide on approaches con- The typical width of crosswalks is 15 ft, but crosswalks are trolled by STOP signs with speed limits of 45 mph or more. 20 ft wide in high pedestrian areas and on the receptive leg of dual left turns (to provide a better turning radius). High-visibility crosswalks are comprised of transverse crosswalk lines that are at least 12 in. wide supplemented High-visibility crosswalks are placed midblock and on with 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are centered on lane uncontrolled approaches to intersections and are com- lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths prised of 24-in.-wide longitudinal lines that are parallel to the and are separated by spaces of approximately 48 in. approach lanes and are centered on lane lines and the centers of approach lanes to avoid wheel paths. Stop lines are 12 in. wide, except that stop lines are 24 in. wide on approaches controlled by STOP signs with speed Stop lines are not used on intersection approaches where limits of 45 mph or more. Stop lines are typically placed 4 ft crosswalks are present. The transverse crosswalk line farthest from the crosswalk. from the intersection serves as the stop line. The lane lines on the approach and departure end at the transverse crosswalk No standards were found for: line are farthest from the intersection. The centerline crosses through standard crosswalks and ends at the transverse cross- Massachusetts New Jersey walk line closest to the intersection. Mississippi New Mexico