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19 shoulder use application when the shoulders are less than 12 ft wide. The accident rate increase was greatest for the first 2 years (up to a 60% increase) and tended to level off at 10% to 15% higher than unaltered conditions after the first 2 years. INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS The potential benefits of driver assistive technology are cur- rently being researched by the University of Minnesota. Their research is aimed specifically at making it easier and safer for Metro bus drivers to operate on narrow shoulder lanes. The research is addressing virtual mirror and virtual bumper sys- tems, as well as the lane keeping assist concept. It is a global positioning system-based approach. Magnets embedded in the roadway pavement are another technology approach that FIGURE 13 I-66 shoulder lane use control sign and signal is under development for the lane keeping assist concept. (Fairfax County, Virginia). Other ITS technologies of potential application for BBS lane use include incident monitoring systems and variable mes- sage signs. Virginia's DOT currently uses overhead message blockages and also to mainline freeway travel speeds. The signs to advise motorists on I-66 as to when shoulder lanes are latter could provide a consistent definition for buses shifting open for general purpose traffic use (see Figure 13). Incident to shoulder use running. ITS signage could alert motorists to monitoring systems could alert bus drivers to shoulder lane shoulder bus operations.