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36 start of the speed change lane taper for the Mavis Road exit. Bi-Annual Meetings Those buses that continue in the BBS adjacent to the ramp will continue on the shoulder and enter the right-turn lane The Operating Partners meet on at least a bi-annual basis to re- with the ramp traffic when it is safe to do so. view BBS operations and agree on changes and improvements. Westbound Evaluation of Bus Bypass Shoulder Use Buses entering Highway 403 by means of Mavis Road north- The Ministry monitors the operation of the BBS and assesses bound to the Highway 403 westbound ramp will merge with the impacts of the BBS on the GPL. The Ministry reports to the GPL and enter the BBS beyond the end of the speed the Bus Operators and the police any observed problems or change taper of the Highway 403 on-ramp from Mavis Road violations of this Operating Protocol, including excessive southbound when it is safe to do so. At no time will a bus en- speed on the BBS or unsafe merging activity. The Ministry ter the southbound Mavis Road to Highway 403 on-ramp notifies the Bus Operator when a problem has been observed speed change lane to access the BBS. and can issue a warning that the Ministry may cancel this Operating Protocol if further violations are observed. Buses already traveling on Highway 403 before Mavis Road must enter the BBS beyond the end of the Mavis Road Media Releases southbound on-ramp speed change lane taper when it is safe to do so. All Operating Partners should make every effort to share, in confidence, any media releases pertaining to the BBS Buses that are not exiting Highway 403 at the Erin Mills with all Operating Partners, at least 24 h in advance of its Parkway interchange will merge safely with the GPL traffic release. before the start of the off-ramp speed change lane taper. Those buses that continue in the BBS adjacent to the ramp will merge with the ramp traffic when it is safe to do so. Termination of Operations Those buses that continue in the BBS adjacent to the ramp will continue on the shoulder and enter the right-turn lane With the exception of an emergency, any of the Operating with the ramp traffic when it is safe to do so. Partners may terminate their participation in their BBS operation with 30 days notice, in writing, to the designated contacts of the other Operating Partners. The MTO reserves Reporting and Liaison the right to terminate or suspend operations, with minimal or no notice if, in the opinion of the Ministry's Regional In addition to contacting the appropriate emergency services Director, there are significant traffic safety or operational at the time of a collision, the Bus Operators must report to concerns. MTO the details of any collisions involving their vehicles using the BBS immediately after their occurrence. Details will include: date, time, location, traffic conditions, weather Liability and pavement conditions, vehicles involved, sequence of events, damages and injuries, possibility of charges, and rec- The Ministry is not liable for any consequences that may re- ommended measures to avoid recurrence. The report is to be sult from termination of the operation of the BBS. By using e-mailed or faxed to the designated MTO contact. the shoulders and agreeing to the Operating Protocol, the Bus Operators acknowledge and accept the more limited operat- ing conditions of the BBS compared with the highway GPL. Forecast of Use On a bi-annual basis (September 1 and April 1) each Bus Op- CASE STUDY 6--DUBLIN, IRELAND erator must provide to MTO an estimate of bus routing, schedule, and bus volumes for the upcoming 6-month period. BBS operations in Dublin began in 1998. The operations This will include an estimate of total trips, on a peak period amount to 50 to 70 mi, most of which are classified as urban and on a per day basis, that will use each direction of the approach roads with at-grade intersections rather than freeway BBS. This information is to be sent to the designated MTO facilities. Hours of operation vary, with some shoulders open contact. The Ministry will then provide written approval. 24 h and others open from: Each Bus Operator can add bus services to the BBS up to 25% over the submitted estimate before having to obtain fur- 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., ther written approval from the MTO. The Ministry deter- 7 a.m. to 10 a.m., mines if additional buses or changes to the operating times 12:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m., or will be permitted beyond this agreed estimate. 4 p.m. to 7 p.m.

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37 Some BBS segments operate Monday through Saturday and some are 7-day-a-week operations. Buses and taxis are permitted to use the shoulder lanes (termed "hard shoulders" in Ireland). Public transit headways range from 1 to 15 min during the peak commute hours. Buses are allowed to oper- ate up to the posted speed limits while using the shoulders (this varies from 31 to 63 mph). Figure 28 shows the BBS signage standards that are em- ployed in Ireland. Signage costs tend to be minimal (less than 5% of BBS cost). A 10-in.-wide continuous solid white line is used to distinguish the BBS shoulder from general traffic lanes. BBS shoulders are constructed to the full pavement strength of general traffic lanes and are at least 10 ft wide. Northern Ireland monitors the use of two BBS facilities FIGURE 28 BBS signage standards as used in Ireland. with cameras and manages traffic with rotating prism signs along the corridor. If a bus breaks down on the shoulder, the camera monitor will change signs to advise other buses of the blockage. One of the BBS camera applications has been in operation for several years and "has been very successful at As congestion creeps further from the city into the outer getting buses past congestion and has not contributed to any traffic arteries the requirement to implement additional accidents." and/or extensions of the bus priority lanes is becoming more important." Figure 29 reports travel time savings af- According to the Dublin Transportation Office the BBS forded by BBS and bus priority treatments for major travel operation "has allowed significant benefits to public and corridors. Figure 30 shows the number of buses and bus private bus transport on approaches and within urban areas. passengers for key corridors. FIGURE 29 Travel time savings by BBS for major travel corridors in Dublin, Ireland.

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FIGURE 30 Number of buses and passengers for key travel corridors in Dublin, Ireland.

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39 Special Road Traffic Legislation (Road Traffic Act) was re- Roundtable planning efforts involving the police, design quired to implement the BBS operations. Special enforcement office, bus operator, and the Dublin Transportation Office efforts were made during the early years of operation; how- were instrumental in implementing the BBS operations. ever, motorist abuse has declined to a very low level. Some ex- A special design office was established to roll out the bus net- cessive speeding by bus drivers has occurred. Bus drivers are work, including the hard shoulders projects. given special training on the use of shoulder lanes.