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TRANSIT TCRP SYNTHESIS 64 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Bus Use of Shoulders A Synthesis of Transit Practice
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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2006 (Membership as of March 2006) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of March 2006) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute DAVID A. LEE of Technology Connecticut Transit Vice Chair: Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS ANN AUGUST MEMBERS Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT LINDA J. BOHLINGER ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT HNTB Corp. JOHN D. BOWE, Regional President, APL Americas, Oakland, CA ROBERT I. BROWNSTEIN LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT PB Consult, Inc. DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, SANDRA K. BUSHUE Atlanta, GA FTA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC PETER CANNITO DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Metropolitan Transportation Authority-- NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University Metro North Railroad GREGORY COOK of Virginia, Charlottesville Ann Arbor Transportation Authority ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL NATHANIEL P. FORD GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Professor and Senior Associate Dean of Research and Technology, School San Francisco MUNI of Policy, Planning, and Development, and Director, METRANS National Center for Metropolitan RONALD L. FREELAND Transportation Research, USC, Los Angeles Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Prof. of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University FRED M. GILLIAM JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley KIM R. GREEN HAROLD E. LINNENKOHL, Commissioner, Georgia DOT GFI GENFARE SUE MCNEIL, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware JILL A. HOUGH DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT North Dakota State University JOHN INGLISH MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments Utah Transit Authority CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JEANNE W. KRIEG JOHN R. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson CELIA G. KUPERSMITH HENRY GERARD SCHWARTZ, JR., Senior Professor, Washington University Golden Gate Bridge, Highway MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA and Transportation District C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas at Austin PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute EX OFFICIO MEMBERS CLARENCE W. MARSELLA Denver Regional Transportation District MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT FAYE L. M. MOORE JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Authority GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, and Foreign Secretary, MICHAEL H. MULHERN National Academy of Engineering Jacobs Civil, Inc. SANDRA K. BUSHUE, Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT STEPHANIE L. PINSON J. RICHARD CAPKA, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. DOE DMJM+Harris JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG JACQUELINE GLASSMAN, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Amalgamated Transit Union EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads MICHAEL SCANLON JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials San Mateo County Transit District JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT BEVERLY SCOTT J. EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics Sacramento Regional Transit District and Space Administration KATHRYN D. WATERS ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, FRANK WILSON U.S.DOT Metropolitan Transit Authority WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association of Harris County SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT APTA CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers TRB JOHN C. HORSLEY TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AASHTO J. RICHARD CAPKA Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP FHWA MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology (Chair) SANDRA K. BUSHUE, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association LOUIS SANDERS APTA JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board SECRETARY MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA ROBERT J. REILLY C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas at Austin TRB LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority
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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 64 Bus Use of Shoulders A Synthesis of Transit Practice CONSULTANT PETER C. MARTIN Wilbur Smith Associates San Francisco, California S UBJECT A REAS Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org
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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 64 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environ- Price $35.00 mental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit Project J-7, Topic SD-03 systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of ISSN 1073-4880 upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, ISBN 0-309-09767-3 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec- Library of Congress Control Number 2006925244 essary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations © 2006 Transportation Research Board into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to COPYRIGHT PERMISSION meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, pub- obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the lished in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be recognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit modeled after the longstanding and successful National Coopera- Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or tive Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document technical activities in response to the needs of transit service provid- for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment ers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, fa- material, request permission from CRP. cilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and ad- ministrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. NOTICE Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Coop- ciency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum erative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Coun- the three cooperating organizations: FTA, the National Academy of cil. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project Sciences, acting through the Transportation Research Board concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a the National Research Council. nonprofit educational and research organization established by The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly com- APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent govern- petence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropri- ing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selec- ate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are tion (TOPS) Committee. those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodi- have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not nec- cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is essarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the Transit Develop- the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the re- ment Corporation, the National Research Council, or the Federal Transit search program by identifying the highest priority projects. As Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical levels and expected products. panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transporta- Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, ap- tion Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the pointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests National Research Council. for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative re- Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, and the search programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or Because research cannot have the desired impact if products manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the re- search: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, Published reports of the and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban are available from: and rural transit industry practitioners. Transportation Research Board The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can coop- Business Office eratively address common operational problems. The TCRP results 500 Fifth Street, NW support and complement other ongoing transit research and train- Washington, DC 20001 ing programs. and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, The National as a parallel Academy organization of Sciences of outstanding is a private, nonprofit,engineers. It is autonomous self-perpetuating society of in its administration distinguished schol- and in the selection ars engaged of its in scientific members, and sharing engineering with the research, National dedicated Academy to of Sciences the furtherance the responsibility of science for and technology advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in programs aimed at meeting 1863, the Academy national needs, encourages has a mandate education that requires andthe it to advise research, federal and recognizes government on the superior scientific andachieve- techni- ments of engineers. cal matters. Dr. Dr. Ralph J.William CiceroneA.isWulf is president president of the National of the National AcademyAcademy of Engineering. of Sciences. The Institute Academy The National of Medicine was established of Engineering wasin 1970 by the established National in 1964, Academy under of Sciences the charter to secure of the National the Acad- services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration to the and in health of the public. the selection The Institute of its members, acts sharing under with thethe responsibility National Academy given to the National of Sciences Academyfor the responsibility of Sciences the advising by federal its congressional government.charter to be an Academy The National adviser toof the federal government Engineering and,engineering also sponsors on its own initiative, programs to identify aimed issues national at meeting of medical care, needs, research, education encourages and education. Dr. Harvey and research, V. Fineberg and recognizes issuperior the president of the achieve- Institute of Medicine. ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The National The Institute Research of Medicine Council was organized was established by the in 1970 byNational Academy the National of Sciences Academy in 1916 of Sciences toto associate secure the the broadof services community of science eminent members ofand technology appropriate with the Academy's professions purposes of in the examination of furthering policy mattersknowledge and pertaining advising to the federal the health of the government. Functioning public. The Institute acts in accordance under with general the responsibility policies given determined to the National by the Acad- Academy of emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, of Sciences and the National to identify issues Academy of medical of care, Engineering research, inand providing services education. to the government, Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg the public, and is president the of the scientific Institute ofand engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and Medicine. the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, The National respectively, Research of Council the National was organized Research Council. by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and The Transportation advising Research Board the federal government. is a division Functioning of the National in accordance Research with general Council, policies determinedwhich by serves the the Acad- National emy, the Academy Council hasof Sciences become and the the National principal Academy operating of Engineering. agency of both theThe Board'sAcademy National mission isof toSciences promote innovation and progress and the National Academy in transportation of Engineering through research. in providing In an to services objective and interdisciplinary the government, the public, and setting, the the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and by researchers and practitioners; the Institute of stimulates Medicine. research Dr. RalphandJ.offers Ciceroneresearch and Dr. management William A.services Wulf are that promote chair and vice technical chair, excellence; respectively, provides expertResearch of the National advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research Council. results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more The Transportation than 5,000 engineers, Research scientists, Board is a and other division of the transportation National and researchers Research Council, practitioners fromwhich serves and the public the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is is to promote innovation supported by and progress state in transportation transportation through departments, research. federal agencies Inincluding an objective and interdisciplinary the component administrationssetting, of the the Board facilitates the U.S. Department ofsharing of information Transportation, and on transportation other organizationspractice and and policy by individuals researchers interested in and the practitioners; development of stimulates research transportation. and offers research management services that promote technical www.TRB.org excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more www.national-academies.org than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
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TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Manager, TCRP FRANK T. MARTIN EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications PBS&J, Tallahassee, FL TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF MEMBERS STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies DEBRA W. ALEXANDER and Information Services Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI JON WILLIAMS, Manager, Synthesis Studies DWIGHT FERRELL DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer The Ferrell Group, Richardson, TX DON TIPPMAN, Editor MARK W. FURHMANN CHERYL Y. KEITH, Senior Secretary Metro Transit, Minneapolis, MN ROBERT H. IRWIN TOPIC PANEL British Columbia Transit, Victoria, BC, Canada GRAHAM CAREY, Lane Transit District PAUL J. LARROUSSE RON DROLET, British Columbia Transit National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ RICHARD A. CUNARD, Transportation Research Board WADE LAWSON AARON ISAACS, Twin Cities Metro Transit South Jersey Transportation Authority, Atlantic City, NJ HERBERT S. LEVINSON, New Haven,Connecticut DAVID A. LEE CATHERINE C. MCGHEE, Virginia Department Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT of Transportation DAVID PHELPS DAVID E. SCHUMACHER, San Diego Association Consultant, Moneta, VA of Governments HAYWARD M. SEYMORE, III HAK-CHUL SHIN, Jackson State University Laidlaw Transit Services, Inc., University Place, WA R. SCOTT ZELLER, Washington State Department PAM WARD of Transportation Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA JEFFREY A. LINDLEY, Federal Highway Administration JOEL R. WASHINGTON (Liaison) Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC VENKAT PINDIPROLU, Federal Transit Administration (Liaison) FTA LIAISON KAREN FACEN Federal Highway Administration TRB LIAISON PETER SHAW Transportation Research Board
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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which in- By Staff formation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and Transportation practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a conse- Research Board quence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solv- ing or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such use- ful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Co- operative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee author- ized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP re- port series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each re- port in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those meas- ures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass con- gestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about juris- dictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders. They can use this report to learn from and compare their experiences with the experiences of other agencies. Findings in this report are based on a literature review, surveys of selected transit agen- cies and roadway jurisdictions, analysis of documentation submitted, as well as interviews and site visits. Case study descriptions were prepared for the following six regions: MinneapolisSt. Paul Twin Cities (Minnesota); Falls Church, Virginia; Miami, Florida; San Diego, California; Toronto, Canada; and Dublin, Ireland. Peter C. Martin, Wilbur Smith Associates, San Francisco, California, collected and syn- thesized the information and wrote the paper, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the Topic Panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 3 Scope, 4 Definitions and Acronyms, 4 Report Organization, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO OVERVIEW OF FINDINGS Survey Responses, 5 Current Bus Use of Shoulder Locations, 5 Bus Use of Shoulder Concerns, 17 Operational Experience, 18 Intelligent Transportation Systems, 19 20 CHAPTER THREE CASE STUDIES Case Study 1--MinneapolisSt. Paul Twin Cities, 20 Case Study 2--Falls Church, Virginia, 26 Case Study 3--Miami, Florida, 28 Case Study 4--San Diego, California, 29 Case Study 5--Toronto, Ontario, 32 Case Study 6--Dublin, Ireland, 36 40 CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH 42 REFERENCES 43 APPENDIX A SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRES 52 APPENDIX B SURVEY RESPONDENTS 54 APPENDIX C SUPPORTING MATERIALS FROM CASE STUDIES