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23 Analysis of Performance Measurement Service area--calculated in square miles, using GIS software. versus Demographics, Service Weekday TLOS indicator--the Florida Transit Level of Ser- Delivery, and Pedestrian Network vice (TLOS) indicator1 measures a combination of service frequency and span. In this application, it measures the per- Following the land-use analysis, a more traditional transit centage of a weekday that locations within the service area performance measurement analysis was performed, with have access to transit. demographics, service delivery, and pedestrian network eval- uated for the case study routes. The routes were characterized in two ways: (1) by the trip type Pedestrian Network served (the home end of a trip versus the work end of a trip) and The following factors relating to street network connectiv- (2) by the type of service (local fixed route, flexible route, and ity were evaluated: commuter). Each route's service area was defined as follows: Network connectivity factor--the number of links (i.e., Fixed route--all areas within one-quarter mile air distance street segments between intersections) within the service of any branch of the route. area, divided by the number of nodes (i.e., intersections). Dial-a-ride--the dial-a-ride service area. Average minimum circularity ratio--the minimum cir- Deviated route--the combination of the route deviation cularity ratio was determined for all blocks falling within a area and all other areas within one-quarter mile of the given one-half mile grid square, and the average of the fixed-route portion of the route. minimum circularity ratios was calculated based on all grid Commuter--the areas within one-quarter mile of the local squares intersecting a route's service area. service portion of the route, where customers would Average block size factor--the ratio of a block's area (in mainly be boarding in the morning. The destination ends square miles) to one-fiftieth square mile. An average value of the routes (transit centers) were not included. of 1.0 or less suggests a relatively dense, walkable street net- work. The average block size factor was calculated based on Table 5-1 shows the routes that were evaluated and their all blocks intersecting a route's service area. characteristics. Findings Demographics Figures 5-12 through 5-15 highlight the most promising rela- The smallest geographic unit available--either Census tionships between the evaluated factors and route productivity. block group or Census traffic analysis zone (TAZ)--was used The six flexible-route services showed a strong correlation to estimate the viability of transit service in a given area: between population density and productivity (see Figure 5-12), which contrasts with the more limited correlation between trip Population density--the number of persons per square density and productivity shown previously in Figure 5-9. The mile within the service area. remaining local fixed-route services showed a fairly weak cor- Job density--the number of employees per square mile relation between population density and productivity. within the service area. There was some correlation between the productivity of the Percentage of population 0-17 years old. employer-oriented services and the percentage of employees Percentage of population 65 or more years old. who had no vehicle at home (see Figure 5-13). Percentage of households with no vehicles available. There was some correlation between productivity and the Percentage of employees with no vehicles available at amount of service provided, as measured by the Florida TLOS home. indicator, which includes both the span and frequency of Average median income--the median income was known service (see Figure 5-14). for each census block or TAZ; a weighted average of these There was relatively good correlation between productivity median incomes was determined for the service area as a and the service area size, with the result that the larger the whole. service area, the less productive the service (see Figure 5-15). Factors that showed no apparent correlation with route productivity included fares, percentage of population under Service Delivery 18, and walkability. The following service delivery variables were evaluated: 1 Ryus, Paul, Jon Ausman, Daniel Teaf, Marc Cooper, and Mark Knoblauch, "Development of Florida's Transit Level of Service Indicator," Transportation Adult peak fare--the lowest (e.g., one-zone) adult fare Research Record 1731, Transportation Research Board, National Research during peak periods. Council, Washington, DC (2000).

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24 Table 5-1. Routes evaluated for the effects of demographics, service delivery, and pedestrian network on performance measurement. Route Agency Type Trip End Margate A BCT Fixed Route Home Margate B BCT Fixed Route Home Margate C BCT Fixed Route Home Margate D BCT Fixed Route Home Cedar Mill Shuttle TriMet Dial-a-Ride Home 155 Sunnyside TriMet Fixed Route Home 156 Mather Rd TriMet Fixed Route Home 157 Happy Valley TriMet Fixed Route Home 204 Wilsonville Rd SMART (Wilsonville) Fixed Route Home 903 Federal Way King County Metro Deviated Route Home 914 Kent King County Metro Deviated Route Home 927 Issaquah-Sammamish King County Metro Deviated Route Home 421 Burnsville-Savage MVRTA Deviated Route Home 152 Milwaukie TriMet Fixed Route Work 41 Hawthorn Farm TriMet Fixed Route Work 50 Cornell Oaks TriMet Fixed Route Work 201 Barbur SMART (Wilsonville) Commuter Work 1X Salem SMART (Wilsonville) Commuter Work 291 Redmond King County Metro Deviated Route Work 224 Shoreview-Roseville MVRTA Fixed Route Work 7,000 6,000 Margate Population Density (persons/square mile) 5,000 R2 = 0.9514 4,000 3,000 Portland/Wilsonville 2,000 MVRTA 224 1,000 TriMet 41 0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 Productivity (passengers/revenue hour) Fixed Route Flexible Route Commuter Linear (Flexible Route) Figure 5-12. Population density versus productivity.

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25 7.0% 6.0% TriMet Cedar Mill Shuttle 5.0% Percent Jobs w/No Car 4.0% 3.0% 2 R = 0.3854 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 Productivity (passengers/revenue hour) Home Work Linear (Work) Figure 5-13. Productivity of employer-oriented services versus the percentage of employees who had no car at home. 0.14 0.12 TLOS Indicator Value (% of Day with Service) 2 R = 0.3318 0.10 2 R = 0.3855 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 Cedar Mill Shuttle excluded 0.00 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 Productivity (passengers/revenue hour) Figure 5-14. Florida Transit Level of Service (TLOS) indicator versus productivity.