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4 Relatively fast trips, Real-time information, Comfort, and Convenience. In order to provide these attributes in suburban transit service, transit agencies must develop transportation solu- tions that are tailored to the specific circumstances of Pre-Automobile Post-Automobile the service area. Services must reflect the transportation Monocentric City Polycentric City needs of the community, the operating environment, and Figure 2-1. Conceptual activity surfaces by urban form. demographics. enclaves are examples of points. Points are largely charac- Established Suburban Transit Services teristic of suburbs, without the qualities of urban areas. Plains represent the large areas of relatively low-density Fixed Route residential, office, or industrial development that fre- Among the most commonly deployed transit services, fixed quently serve as one end of a trip. Residential suburbs are routes are routes that follow a predetermined alignment and an example of plains. Like points, plains are largely a phe- schedule. Fixed routes may operate more frequently than nomenon of suburbia and do not have high diversity, den- other service forms and provide service during peak hours or sity, or deterrents to driving. all day. Fixed-route services include Trunk, Express, Features of Suburban Transit Limited service, Services Circulators, and As suburbs expand and the suburban population grows, it Shuttles and feeders. is increasingly apparent that traditional transit service is often not suited to meet suburban mobility and accessibility Deviated Fixed Route needs. In spite of significant investments in transit services, transit's mode share is challenged overall, even for commute In deviated fixed-route service, vehicles have the flexibility trips, which are often perceived as transit's biggest market. As to move within a given service area as long as they arrive on discussed previously, the private automobile offers the con- schedule at various time points. Often the time points are venience and flexibility that many people often take for located at transit hubs where passengers can transfer to trunk granted in their daily travels. However, congestion, fuel costs, or express service. Deviated fixed routes frequently use mobility needs of the transportation disadvantaged, and smaller vehicles, whether they are small buses or large vans. It environmental concerns require that alternatives to private is also common for these routes to have their own identities, automobiles and driving alone be viable and available. with unique logos and color schemes. With a commitment to providing transportation options Deviated routes generally take one of three forms. The in suburban locations comes the understanding among pub- most flexible form of deviated fixed route is essentially a lic decision makers and transit agencies that traditional tran- demand-responsive service that has two time points, one on sit options may not be effective and must be redefined to each end of a service area. A slightly more restricted service better serve suburban markets. Traditional fixed route may might have a vehicle running along a route between four or not meet passengers' mobility and accessibility needs. There- five time points, but deviating as necessary for passengers to fore, there needs to be a commitment to try new things and board and alight. Another common variation is to have a develop new ways to provide transit that offers benefits simi- vehicle follow a fixed route, but allow it to deviate up to a lar to automobiles. Benefits of private cars, and consequently given distance (typically one-half or three-quarters of a mile) desirable attributes of suburban transit, include from the route to pick up or drop off passengers. Examples of deviated fixed-route services include Near door-to-door service, Flexible routing and scheduling, Circulators and Service on demand, Shuttles.