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7 The street network was evaluated for its level of connectiv- Does the service area include a place where there are few, ity to determine whether transit riders would have options for if any, parking lots in front of buildings? direct routes to transit stops. This rating was also done on a Does the service area include a place where there is high scale of 1 to 5, with greatest connectivity being a 5. Images of street wall continuity--a place where buildings are lined sample street networks for each of the five levels were chosen up next to each other with few gaps, providing a vibrant to give raters a visual reference. Additionally, a text descrip- place for pedestrians to walk? tion characterizing each level of connectivity was used as a guide, as shown in Table 2-2. Deterrents to Driving The final element of the design measures was evaluating whether a suburban service area included any places that Deterrents to driving are characteristics of a service area could be characterized as urban in terms of development that have the potential to encourage more people to choose patterns, street space, or walkability. This was a yes/no eval- transit over driving. The research team evaluated two meas- uation of whether the study area has a place with buildings ures: parking costs and transit priority features. Parking costs fronting on the street and defining a strong public space, were defined in terms of average daily cost of off-street park- such as a traditional "Main Street." If the person evaluating ing. If the study area included a place where free parking is the area could answer "yes" to all of the following questions, generally not available, the value of this binary value was the area was determined to have a place with "urban" char- defined as "yes." Transit priority features include traffic signal acteristics. priority, queue jump lanes, exclusive transit lanes, or busways. The transit priority features measure was reported as either Does the service area include a place where most buildings "yes" or "no" depending on whether the suburban transit are adjacent to the sidewalk, not set back from the sidewalk? service made use of any of these features.