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9 East: deviation successful if its productivity was comparable to the fixed-route average. 23. Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation Commis- Among demand-responsive services, zone systems that sion (PRTC, in Virginia) capture internal trips or that link passengers to fixed routes 24. Merrimack Valley Regional Transit Authority (MVRTA, have been successfully implemented. The size of the zone in Massachusetts) (including the number of attractions) and the availability of 25. Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA, in other services appeared to significantly affect productivity. New York) The standards used to rate success varied by agency. 26. Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads Some services named "shuttles" by their operating agency (Hampton Roads Transit, or HRT, in Virginia) are similar to the demand-responsive services described 27. Rhode Island Public Transportation Authority (RIPTA) above, while others were more fixed in nature, connecting 28. New Jersey Transit (NJ Transit) neighborhoods or providing service to employment centers through connections at rail stations or transit hubs. Employer shuttles appeared to perform best with sustained employer participation. Key Issues and Trends Circulators exhibit many of the same characteristics as A number of key issues and trends emerged from the shuttles, with the possible exception that shuttles connect to analysis of the preliminary case studies. The range of services a particular destination, while circulators typically connect to offered by the agencies included in the case studies can be multiple activity points. grouped into the following categories: The information collected thus far on vanpools and ridesharing also varies by agency, with a key factor in agency Commuter, participation being the ownership of the vehicles. In addition, Route deviation, one innovative service used by Pace is to keep vans at Metra Demand responsive, stations to connect workers to their place of employment. Shuttles, This service also resembles the car sharing services, some- Circulators, and times termed "station car" service, that have been employed Vanpools. in more urban areas of the country. In addition to the observed services listed above, other The commuter services are typically premium operations issues are worth discussion: designed to attract a higher-income market through various service attributes, or reverse commute operations, which usu- Performance measurement. One of the most thorough ally operate during nontraditional hours and are often efforts to quantify service performance was completed by funded by Job Access Reverse Commute (JARC) funds. Pierce Transit. The performance criteria for one of Pierce Another trend is that premium commuter services require a Transit's services are shown in Table 3-1. Other perform- higher farebox recovery ratio than standard fixed routes ance measurement systems of note are the MetCouncil's require to be considered successful. Using an employee from (Twin Cities) thorough review of zones every 3 years and the job site as the driver, creating a "buspool" is one innova- the MTDB's (San Diego) combination of quantity- and tion observed at a case study site. quality-of-service goals. The quantitative criteria include Success with route-deviation service, sometimes in con- passengers per revenue-mile, passengers per revenue-hour, cert with demand-responsive service, has been mixed. Sev- and subsidy per passenger. The qualitative criteria can be eral areas have abandoned or greatly reduced this type of grouped into three categories: transit-supportive land uses, service because of a variety of difficulties, including sched- regional transportation priorities, and quality of service. ule adherence, customer complaints about advance sched- Denver RTD also uses performance measurement exten- uling, and lack of buy-in by operational personnel. Some sively for all types of services. agencies believed that mixing a fixed schedule with demand- Funding. Funding sources also appeared to influence both responsive routing was a conflict in philosophies. However, service availability and, to some degree, the productivity other agencies appeared to successfully combine these analysis. For example, a number of nontraditional services concepts, especially when they were implemented as a sub- were funded by JARC or the federal Congestion Mitigation stitute for existing service (as opposed to a stand-alone, new and Air Quality (CMAQ) program, while several agencies service). Some agencies considered route-deviated services either had dedicated local funding taxes or were funded as successful if they exceeded the productivity rate of the local a result of "opting out" of the transit district. In several demand-responsive service, while others considered route instances, the lack of sustained funding from JARC or