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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH REPORT 112 PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE FTA I M P R O V I N G P E D E S T R I A N S A F E T Y A T U N S I G N A L I Z E D C R O S S I N G S NCHRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 562

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2006 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SELECTION COMMITTEE (Membership as of April 2006) (as of March 2006) OFFICERS CHAIR David A. Lee CHAIR: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute Connecticut Transit of Technology VICE CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority MEMBERS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation MEMBERS Authority Linda J. Bohlinger Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT HNTB Corp. Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT Robert I. Brownstein John D. Bowe, Regional President, APL Americas, Oakland, CA PB Consult, Inc. Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT Sandra K. Bushue Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, FTA Atlanta, GA Peter Cannito Metropolitan Transportation Authority-- Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Metro North Railroad Douglas G. Duncan, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Gregory Cook Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Ann Arbor Transportation Authority Charlottesville Nathaniel P. Ford Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL San Francisco MUNI Genevieve Giuliano, Professor and Senior Associate Dean of Research and Technology, School of Policy, Ronald L. Freeland Planning, and Development, and Director, METRANS National Center for Metropolitan Transportation Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. Research, USC, Los Angeles Fred M. Gilliam Susan Hanson, Landry University Prof. of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority Kim R. Green James R. Hertwig, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GFI GENFARE Gloria J. Jeff, General Manager, City of Los Angeles DOT Jill A. Hough Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley North Dakota State University Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT John Inglish Sue McNeil, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware Utah Transit Authority Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT Jeanne W. Krieg Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT Celia G. Kupersmith Golden Gate Bridge, Highway John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT and Transportation District Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Paul J. Larrousse Henry Gerard Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University National Transit Institute Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Clarence W. Marsella C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas at Austin Denver Regional Transportation District Faye L. M. Moore EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT Michael H. Mulhern Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Jacobs Civil, Inc. Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Stephanie L. Pinson George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, and Foreign Secretary, National Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. Academy of Engineering Robert H. Prince, Jr. Sandra K. Bushue, Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DMJM+Harris J. Richard Capka, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Jeffrey M. Rosenberg Thomas H. Collins (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Amalgamated Transit Union Michael Scanlon James J. Eberhardt, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. DOE San Mateo County Transit District Jacqueline Glassman, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Beverly Scott Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads Sacramento Regional Transit District John C. Horsley, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Kathryn D. Waters John E. Jamian, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Frank Wilson Ashok G. Kaveeshwar, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT Metropolitan Transit Authority Brigham McCown, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT of Harris County William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Suzanne Rudzinski, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA William W. Millar Annette M. Sandberg, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT APTA Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Carl A. Strock (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers TRB John C. Horsley AASHTO J. Richard Capka FHWA TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders APTA SECRETARY Robert J. Reilly TRB

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 112/NCHRP REPORT 562 Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings Kay Fitzpatrick, Shawn Turner, Marcus Brewer, Paul Carlson, Brooke Ullman, Nada Trout, Eun Sug Park, and Jeff Whitacre TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX AND Nazir Lalani TRAFFEX ENGINEERS, INC. Ventura, CA AND Dominique Lord TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY College Station, TX Subject Areas Operations and Safety Public Transit Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation and by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2006 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 112 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Price $35.00 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current Project D-8 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISSN 1073-4872 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve ISBN 0-309-09859-9 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to Library of Congress Control Number 2006929386 adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative 2006 Transportation Research Board Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. COPYRIGHT PERMISSION The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation published or copyrighted material used herein. Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. NOTICE TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- purposes and resources of the National Research Council. lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Department of Transportation. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 562 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Price $35.00 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway Project 3-71 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually ISBN 0-309-09859-9 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the Library of Congress Control Number 2006929386 accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly 2006 Transportation Research Board complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the COPYRIGHT PERMISSION American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program published or copyrighted material used herein. employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Transportation. educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission requested by the Association to administer the research program from CRP. because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which NOTICE authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this research directly to those who are in a position to use them. report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade The needs for highway research are many, and the National or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant object of this report. contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under TCRP/NCHRP Project D-08/3-71 by the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI). The Texas A&M Research Foundation was the contractor for this study. Kay Fitzpatrick of TTI was the principal investigator. Primary authors of this report are Kay Fitzpatrick (research engineer), Shawn Turner (associate research engineer), and Marcus Brewer (assistant research engineer), all of TTI. Assisting the primary authors were Paul Carlson (associate research engineer, TTI), Nazir Lalani (principal associate of Traffex Engineers, Inc.), Brooke Ullman (associate transportation researcher, TTI), Nada Trout (assistant research scientist, TTI), Eun Sug Park (assistant research scientist, TTI), Dominique Lord (assistant professor, Texas A&M University), and Jeff Whitacre (graduate research assistant, TTI). The work was performed under the general supervision of Dr. Fitzpatrick. The authors would also like to recognize the following individuals with TTI for assistance with the research: Collecting field data: Todd Hausman (associate research specialist), Laura Sandt (research associate), Andrew Holick (assistant transportation researcher), and Gary Barricklow (traffic surveyor); Reducing field data: Todd Hausman, Megan Kubecka, Charles Stevens, Tim Wolff, Pammy Katsabas, Melissa Ghrist, Brianne McEwen, Amber Holguin, Stephanie Sandt, Kathleen Newton, and Steven Wilcox; and Report preparation: Denise Robledo and Maria Medrano. The authors wish to acknowledge the many individuals who contributed to this research by participat- ing in the focus groups, on-street surveys, and on-site interviews, along with those who assisted in identi- fying potential study sites for the Phase II field studies. Those that hosted members of the research team during the on-site interviews included Dan Bergenthal (Salt Lake City, Utah); Richard Nassi, Shellie Ginn, and George Caria (Tucson, Arizona); Michael Cynecki, Thomas Godbee, Ron Robinson, and Chuck Ital- iano (Phoenix, Arizona); Lucy Dyke and Beth Rolandson (Santa Monica, California); Wayne Tanda and John Fisher (Los Angeles, California); Julie Mercer-Matlick, Paula Reeves, and Randy Wesselman (Olympia, Washington); Pat O'Neill (University Place, Washington); Robert Spillar, Brian Kemper, Megan Hoyt, and Ross Hudson (Seattle, Washington); David Godfrey (Kirkland, Washington); Mark Poch and Kurt Latt (Bellevue, Washington); Jeff Palmer and Susan Byszeski (Redmond, Washington); and Bill Kloos, Jamie Jeffreys, Jean Senechal, and Basil Christopher (Portland, Oregon). Several individuals also assisted the research team with identifying study sites and coordinating the field data collection including Richard Nassi (Tucson DOT); John Fisher (Los Angeles DOT); Dan Bergenthal (Salt Lake City Corporation); Bill Kloos and Jean Senechal (Portland Office of Transportation); Lucy Dyke and Beth Rolandson (City of Santa Monica Planning & Community Development); Jeff Palmer and Susan Byszeski (City of Redmond); David Godfrey (City of Kirkland Public Works); Brian Kemper and Megan Hoyt (Seattle Transportation); Eric Tabacek and Ed Paulis (Maryland State Highway Administration); David Gerard (City of Austin); and Ken Fogle (City of College Station). Individuals who participated in the workshop on evaluating the pedestrian signal warrant at selected locations include Ruth Smith, Bill Kloos, Mohamed Yussef, Sandra Marks, Raja Sethuraman, Monica Suter, Anne Hernandez, Nancy Cooper, Colleen Hill, Rock Miller, Crystal Killian, Jeffrey Bagdade, and Bob Mabry. Individuals who donated their time to review the draft Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatments include Richard Nassi (City of Tucson), David Gerard (City of Austin), Monica Suter (City of Santa Ana), Mark Meisinger (City of Portland), Tom Hicks (Maryland State Highway Administration), and John Fisher (City of Los Angeles).

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 112/NCHRP REPORT 562 Robert J. Reilly, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher W. Jenks, TCRP Manager Crawford F. Jencks, NCHRP Manager Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT D-8/NCHRP PROJECT 3-71 PANEL TCRP Field of Engineering of Fixed Facilities NCHRP Field of Traffic--Area of Operations and Control Julie Mercer Matlick, Seattle DOT, Seattle, WA (Chair) Aida Berkovitz, Federal Highway Administration, San Francisco, CA Graham Carey, Lane Transit District, Eugene, OR Linda Fuller, Chicago Transit Authority, Chicago, IL Ronald Kilcoyne, Greater Bridgeport Transit Authority, Bridgeport, CT Daniel Paddick, Binghamton, NY Edward T. Paulis, Jr., Maryland State Highway Administration, Timonium, MD Paul V. Ponchillia, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI Paul H. Spiegel, New Jersey Transit Authority, Newark, NJ Carol Tan, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA Frank Tramontozzi, Fay Spofford & Thorndike, Inc., Burlington, MA Richard Pain, TRB Liaison TRB EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SUBCOMMITTEE FOR TCRP Michael D. Meyer, Georgia Institute of Technology (Chair) Sandra K. Bushue, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, American Public Transportation Association John R. Njord, Utah DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Michael S. Townes, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. Michael Walton, University of Texas at Austin Linda S. Watson, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority TRB EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SUBCOMMITTEE FOR NCHRP Michael D. Meyer, Georgia Institute of Technology (Chair) J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administration John C. Horsley, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials John R. Njord, Utah DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board C. Michael Walton, University of Texas at Austin Linda S. Watson, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority

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FOREWORD By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562: Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings will be of interest to state, county, and city traffic engineers; transit agencies; road- way designers; and urban planners, as well as consultants for these groups and agencies. This material provides considerable information and useful guidance for improving pedestrian safety at unsignalized crossings. The report presents the edited final report and Appendix A. TCRP Web-Only Document 30/NCHRP Web-Only Document 91, available on the CRP website, contains appendixes B through O of the contractor's final report. A recent research project jointly sponsored by the TCRP and the NCHRP had two main objectives: Recommend selected engineering treatments to improve safety for pedestrians cross- ing high-volume, high-speed roadways at unsignalized intersections, in particular on roads served by public transportation; and Recommend modifications to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) pedestrian traffic signal warrant. The research team developed guidelines that can be used to select pedestrian crossing treatments for unsignalized intersections and midblock locations (Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatments). Quantitative procedures in the guidelines use key input variables (such as pedestrian volume, street crossing width, and traffic volume) to recommend one of four possible crossing treatment categories. The research team developed and presented recommendations to revise the MUTCD pedestrian warrant for traffic control signals to the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. In accomplishing the two main study objectives, the research team also developed useful supporting information such as findings from the field studies on walking speed and motorist compliance. Pedestrian walking speed recommendations were 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) for the general population and 3.0 ft/s (0.9 m/s) for the older or less able population. Motorist compliance (with yielding or stopping where required) was the primary measure of effec- tiveness for engineering treatments at unsignalized roadway crossings. The study found that the type of crossing treatment affects motorist compliance; other factors influencing the treatment effectiveness were the number of lanes being crossed and posted speed limit. TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562 and its appendixes provide useful information and tools for those interested in improving pedestrian safety at unsignalized crossings.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Background 3 Objectives 3 Approach 4 Organization of this Report 6 Chapter 2 Pedestrian Characteristics 6 Why People Walk 6 Psychology of Space 6 Why People Do Not Walk 7 Pedestrian Settings 7 Walking Speed 9 Pedestrian Space Requirements 11 Pedestrian Capacities 11 Use of Signal Stages 11 Pedestrian Waiting Periods 11 Pedestrian Crossing Choices 13 Child Pedestrians 14 Older Pedestrians 14 Pedestrian Delay 16 Chapter 3 Review of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments 16 Combinations of Treatments 17 Traffic Signal and Red Beacon Displays 17 Flashing Beacons 18 In-Roadway Warning Lights 19 Motorist Warning Signs and Pavement Markings 20 Crosswalk Pavement Markings 20 Roadway Design Elements 20 Summary 22 Chapter 4 Review of Pedestrian Signal Warrant 22 Review of Current Pedestrian Signal Warrant 25 Findings From the Workshop 26 Summary 27 Chapter 5 Findings From Surveys 27 Observations From Survey of Providers 29 On-Street Pedestrian Surveys 31 Summary

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32 Chapter 6 Field Studies 32 Background 32 Site Selection 34 Protocol for Data Collection 36 Collection Approaches 40 Data Reduction 41 Summary 43 Chapter 7 Findings From the Field Study 43 Walking Speed 46 Motorist Compliance 52 Gap Acceptance 55 Transit Rider Walking Behavior Before Departing 56 Pedestrian Visual Search 56 Pedestrian Crosswalk Use 57 Pedestrian Activation 58 Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflicts 58 Pedestrian Delay 59 Chapter 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 59 Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatments 59 Revisions to the MUTCD Traffic Signal Warrant 60 Walking Speed 60 Motorist Compliance 62 References 64 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms 65 Appendix A 99 Appendixes B Through O