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16 CHAPTER 3 Review of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments Initial research efforts were to review available information crossings often use several traffic control devices or design on pedestrian crossing treatments and designs. Several recent elements to meet the information and control needs of both publications provide a good overview on various crossing motorists and pedestrians. treatments, including the following: For example, consider the following desirable characteris- tics for a pedestrian crossing: · 2001 ITE informational report on Alternative Treatments for At-Grade Pedestrian Crossings (26) and · The street crossing task is made simple and convenient for · 2002 FHWA report on Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide pedestrians. (27). · The crossing location and any waiting or crossing pedes- trians have excellent visibility. The findings identified in this project from recent research · Vehicle speeds are slowed or controlled in the area of the are documented in the following appendixes: pedestrian crossing. · Vehicle drivers are more aware of the presence of the · Appendix C presents the literature review. crosswalk. · Information on current practices since the 2001 ITE report · Vehicle drivers yield the right-of-way to legally crossing is included in Appendix D. pedestrians. · Each study in the literature review is discussed in · Pedestrians use designated crossing locations and obey Appendix E. applicable state and local traffic laws. · Appendix F discusses pedestrian crossing installation crite- ria used by entities in several countries. Criteria identified In a complex (e.g., multi-lane, high-speed, high-volume) during this joint TCRP/NCHRP project is summarized at street environment, it probably will be difficult to provide the end of the appendix. these characteristics with a single simple treatment, i.e., com- plex street environments may require several different treat- This chapter summarizes the major evaluation findings for ments intended to serve different purposes. For example, one various pedestrian crossing treatments at uncontrolled loca- might consider these treatments on a multi-lane, high-vol- tions and provides the research team's interpretation of these ume arterial street: findings. · A median refuge island to make the street crossing easier and more convenient; Combinations of Treatments · Advanced yield lines to improve the visibility of crossing Several evaluations have tested a combination of crossing pedestrians; treatments and found these treatments to be more effective · Removal of parking and installation of curb extensions to when used together systematically. For example, a study in St. improve visibility; Petersburg, Florida, found that advanced yield lines, Yield · Pedestrian-activated flashing beacons to warn motorists of Here to Pedestrian signs, and pedestrian prompting signs crossing pedestrians; were most effective when used together (28). The research · Motorist signs to indicate that pedestrians have the legal team believes that the safest and most effective pedestrian right-of-way;