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3 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Background So as to provide more than just a list of possible treatments, the research team developed quantitative guidelines to help With the movement toward livable communities, where engineers and transit agencies decide which treatments are walking and using transit are attractive transportation recommended for different street environments and traffic options, there is an increasing desire to improve pedestrian conditions. In accomplishing this, the team evaluated various safety. This desire extends to areas typically seen as being non- pedestrian crossing treatments and documented the results. pedestrian-friendly, such as the higher speed and wider road- The guidelines are included in Appendix A of this report. ways, especially when these roadways serve as transit routes. With traffic conditions changing as vehicle volumes and con- gestion increase, these changes have affected pedestrians' abil- Objectives ity to cross many roadways safely. The objectives of this research were to Recent developments in geometric design features, traffic control devices, and technologies may improve pedestrian Recommend selected engineering treatments to improve safety and access by addressing specific problems associated safety for pedestrians crossing high-volume and high- with roadway crossings. Although numerous treatments exist speed roadways at unsignalized locations, in particular at unsignalized crossings, there is growing concern about those locations served by public transportation; and their effectiveness. Thus, there is a need to identify and study Recommend modifications to the MUTCD pedestrian selected treatments to determine their effectiveness. A recent traffic signal warrant. research project jointly sponsored by TCRP and NCHRP was initiated to address this particular need. The research was conducted by the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI). Approach One objective of the research was to recommend selected The research had two phases. Phase I focused on reviewing engineering treatments to improve safety for pedestrians the literature, conducting surveys, and evaluating the state of crossing at unsignalized locations, particularly locations the practice, and concluded with the development of a study served by public transportation. Another objective was to approach for Phase II to accomplish the research project's two examine the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices on objectives. Streets and Highways (MUTCD) (1) pedestrian signal war- Phase I activities included the following: rant, because there is concern that the existing traffic signal pedestrian warrant may need to be modified. For example, Review of current practice for crossing treatments through state and local transportation agencies often have difficulty a search of the literature and interviews with providers, justifying the installation of traffic signals at pedestrian cross- Conduct of surveys of pedestrians to establish their expe- ing locations. Many of these locations are experiencing traf- riences and needs at unsignalized pedestrian crossing fic volume increases, along with reductions in vehicle gaps locations, that provide opportunities for the safe crossing of pedestri- Assessment of pedestrian crossing designs, ans. Transit stops may exist on both sides of these roadways, Evaluation of the adequacy of the pedestrian signal war- creating challenging pedestrian crossing conditions. In these rant and development of preliminary recommendations (often suburban) locations, meeting the pedestrian volumes for modifying the current warrant, and specified in the warrant is rarely possible. Preparation of the evaluation research plan.