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34 Table 16. Summary of study sites. Number Range in Range in of Study Through Speed Limit City Crossing Treatment Sites Lanes (mph) Tucson, AZ HAWK signal beacon 5 4 to 6 30 to 40 High-visibility markings and 2 4 25 to 35 signs Los Angeles, Overhead flashing beacon 4 2 to 4 30 to 35 CA (passive) Midblock signal 4 4 to 5 25 to 35 Santa Monica, Median refuge island, high- 2 4 30 CA visibility signs Capitol Heights, Overhead flashing beacon 1 6 35 MD (continuous) Towson, MD Overhead flashing beacon 1 4 35 (pushbutton) Portland, OR Half signal 3 4 35 Median refuge island, high- 3 2 to 4 25 to 35 visibility signs Austin, TX High-visibility signs and 1 4 35 markings College Station, Median refuge island, high- 1 4 35 TX visibility signs Salt Lake City, Overhead flashing beacon 3 4 30 to 35 UT (pushbutton) Pedestrian flags 3 4 to 6 30 to 35 Kirkland, WA Pedestrian flags 3 2 to 4 25 to 35 Redmond, WA In-street crossing sign 3 2 to 3 25 to 30 Seattle, WA Half signal 3 3 to 4 35 Protocol for Data Collection simply using staged pedestrians) to measure a part of the crossing treatment's effectiveness. The data collection and analysis protocol for evaluating the In general, the following protocol was used in the observa- effectiveness of treatments used two approaches for collect- tion studies: ing the data: A minimum of 100 pedestrian crossing events or 4 hours General population pedestriansuse on-site and video- of data (whichever occurred first) were recorded at each taped observations to record various pedestrian behavior location, where each crossing event consisted of one or and operational characteristics, and Staged pedestriansuse staged pedestrians to measure more pedestrians crossing the entire width of the street. Two members of the project team were positioned at motorist compliance at existing pedestrian crossing treat- ments. inconspicuous locations near the pedestrian crossing to make anecdotal notes of the crossing events. These anec- dotal notes did not include quantitative data on the MOEs General Population in Table 15 but instead focused on qualitative observations Observation studies were used to record numerous pedes- about vehicle and motorist behavior. trian behaviors and operational characteristics. A video The on-site field observers counted the number of pedes- recording was made of the crossing to permit review and data trian crossing events as they occurred to ensure that the reduction after the actual crossing event occurred. It was minimum sample size of 100 crossing events was achieved necessary to observe actual pedestrian behavior (rather than as time allowed.

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35 Midblock Traffic Signal Characteristics A midblock signal is a standard traffic signal that is not located at an intersecting cross street. The pedestrian phase for a midblock signal is typically activated by a pushbutton and can consist of a steady red indication or a sequence of steady red and then flashing red indications for drivers. A midblock signal typically dwells in steady green (or green arrow) for vehicles. A supplemental sign is typically used to indicate the signal is for pedestrians. The signal is subject to requirements specified in the MUTCD. Half signal (Intersection Pedestrian Signal) Signal heads on Characteristics major approaches A half signal is a standard traffic signal (with red, yellow, and green indications) for the major road. When located at an intersection, the minor cross street has Stop sign control. The pedestrian phase for a half signal is typically activated by a pushbutton and consists of a steady red indication. In the United States, most installed half signals dwell in steady green for vehicles, whereas most half signals in British Columbia dwell in flashing Stop sign on green. minor This is an experimental traffic control device not currently included in the MUTCD. HAWK Signal Beacon Characteristics A HAWK signal beacon resembles an emergency vehicle beacon and only provides yellow and red indications for drivers. Pedestrians see standard pedestrian control features. The pedestrian phase for a HAWK signal beacon is typically activated by a pushbutton. Drivers see a sequence of flashing yellow, steady yellow, steady red, and flashing red indications. The HAWK signal beacon, used exclusively in Tucson and Pima County, Arizona, dwells in a dark mode for vehicles. This is an experimental traffic control device not currently included in the MUTCD. Figure 12. Red signal or beacon devices. The observers and the video recording devices were posi- and aggressiveness affect a motorist's decision to stop or yield tioned to be, as much as possible, inconspicuous to both at a pedestrian crossing. For example, motorists are less likely the pedestrians and motorists. to stop or yield when pedestrians stand several feet behind the curb line (e.g., the pedestrian may appear as though they are waiting instead of intending to cross). Staged Pedestrian Tests The following protocols were used in the staged pedestrian Staged pedestrian tests were used to measure motorist tests: compliance at existing pedestrian crossing treatments. Staged pedestrians were used in the belief that consistent presenta- A minimum of 40 staged crossings (i.e., 20 crossings in tion of a pedestrian intent to cross was critical for comparing each direction) were performed at each location. motorist compliance results from different locations or areas The staged pedestrian was a male dressed in blue jeans and of the country; in other words, pedestrian positioning, stance, a neutral-colored shirt (e.g., gray, blue, tan, or white).