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4 The focus of Phase II was to collect data and conduct eval- sents information on pedestrian characteristics. Chapter 3 uations to permit development of guidelines on selecting reviews pedestrian crossing treatments, while Chapter 4 pedestrian treatments. These guidelines were to include the reviews the MUTCD pedestrian signal warrant. Findings from criteria for warranting a traffic signal. The major Phase II surveys of providers and pedestrians are discussed in Chapter activities were 5. Chapters 6 and 7 present the methodology for the field stud- ies and the field studies findings, respectively. Chapter 8 pre- Conduct of field studies that collected data on many sents the conclusions and recommendations from the research. pedestrian and motorist behaviors with an emphasis on Table 1 summarizes the material contained in each chapter walking speed, motorist compliance, and pedestrian-vehicle and the appendixes that support the topic. The printed report conflicts; contains the chapters and Appendix A. The other appendixes Exploration of how different criteria (e.g., number of are published as a web-only document available at the fol- pedestrians or vehicles, delay, and major-road speed) could lowing address: be used in selecting pedestrian crossing treatment; Development and testing of guidelines; documents. Production of recommendations on changes to the The accomplishment of the objectives are discussed in MUTCD; and Appendixes A and B. Documentation of procedures and findings. Appendix A contains the recommended Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. These guidelines are intended to provide general recommendations on pedestrian crossing Organization of this Report treatments to consider at uncontrolled locations. The guide- For this report, details on the research methodology and lines note that, in all cases, engineering judgment should be findings are in the appendixes; the chapters summarize the key used in selecting a specific treatment for installation. The elements of the research. Chapter 1 contains the background, guidelines build on the recommendations of several studies objectives, and overview of the research approach along with and focus on unsignalized locations--they do not apply to this section on the organization of the report. Chapter 2 pre- school crossings. Considerations (in addition to the procedure Table 1. Overview of report. Chapter Topic Supporting Appendices 1 Introduction 2 Pedestrian Characteristics 3 Pedestrian Crossing Treatments Appendix CLiterature Review of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments at Uncontrolled Locations Appendix DPedestrian Crossing Treatments Appendix ESummary of Pedestrian Crossing Treatment Evaluations Appendix FPedestrian Crossing Installation Guidelines 4 Pedestrian Signal Warrants Appendix GInternational Signal Warranting Practices Appendix HAdequacy of Pedestrian Signal Warrant Appendix ISuggested Issues to Consider When Revising the Pedestrian Signal Warrant 5 Surveys Appendix JSurvey of Providers Appendix KOn-Street Pedestrian Surveys 6, 7 Field Studies and Findings from Field Studies Appendix LMotorist Compliance to Engineering Treatments at Marked Crosswalks Appendix MWalking Speed Appendix NGap Acceptance Appendix OGuidelines Development 8 Conclusions and Recommendations Appendix AGuidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatments Appendix BProposed Changes to MUTCD

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5 provided in these guidelines) should be used at locations shown as strikeouts and underlines within a reproduction of where installing a pedestrian treatment could increase safety the relevant pages of the MUTCD. The recommendations are risks to pedestrians, such as where there is poor sight distance, grouped into three proposals. The first proposal deals directly complex geometrics, or proximity of traffic signals. with the pedestrian signal warrant. The second proposal adds Appendix B contains the recommendations for changes to advice on using a refuge island as an alternative to traffic con- the MUTCD as presented to the National Committee on Uni- trol signals. Adding a new device to the MUTCD, called a form Traffic Control Devices (NCUTCD). The changes are pedestrian traffic control signal, is the third proposal.