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65 APPENDIX A Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatments Introduction 35 mph (55 km/h) where the community has a population of less than 10,000 or where a major transit stop exists. The first These guidelines provide general recommendations on step is to select the appropriate worksheet. The speeds repre- pedestrian crossing treatments to consider at unsignalized sent the posted or statutory speed limit or the 85th percentile intersections; in all cases, engineering judgment should be speed on the major street, whichever is higher. The work- used in selecting a specific treatment for installation. The fol- sheets available are lowing guidelines build on the recommendations of several studies and focus on unsignalized intersections. They do not Worksheet 1: 35 mph (55 km/h) or less (see Figure A-2) apply to school crossings. Considerations (in addition to the and procedure provided in these guidelines) should be used where Worksheet 2: exceeds 35 mph (55 km/h), in communities a pedestrian treatment could present an increased safety risk with less than 10,000 in population, or where a major tran- to pedestrians, such as where there is poor sight distance, sit stop exists (see Figure A-3). complex geometrics, or traffic signals. Step 2: Check Minimum Pedestrian Volume System of Treatments The minimum pedestrian volume for a peak-hour evalua- The installation of a pedestrian crossing treatment alone tion is 20 pedestrians per hour for both directions (14 ped/h does not necessarily result in more vehicles stopping for if the major road speed exceeds 35 mph [55 km/h]). If fewer pedestrians unless that device shows a red indication to the pedestrians are crossing the street, then geometric improve- motorist. Therefore, treating a location to improve pedestrian ments (rather than signs, signals, or markings) such as traffic access or safety should include several components. For calming, median refuge islands, and curb extensions, are example, in addition to traffic control devices (TCDs) such as alternatives that can be considered. signs or markings, geometric improvements (e.g., refuge island, roadway narrowing, and curb extensions) may be used to shorten the crossing distance (and hence the exposure time Step 3: Check Signal Warrant for the pedestrian). Traffic calming may be used to slow vehi- The MUTCD signal warrants are checked in Step 3 to cle speeds near the pedestrian crossing. determine whether to consider a signal at the site. The signal warrant procedures recommended in this step (which will be Overview of Procedure considered as changes to the MUTCD by the National Com- mittee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices) more closely Figure A-1 provides an overview of the procedure. Tables align the Pedestrian Signal Warrant with the current (2003) A-1 and A-2 list the variables needed for the evaluation and Peak-Hour Signal Warrant for vehicles (with adjustment the calculations that are to be performed, respectively. made to reflect the counting of pedestrians crossing the major roadway from both approaches rather than only the highest approach as used in the vehicle signal warrant). The work- Step 1: Select Worksheet sheets include equations that can determine the minimum Two worksheets are availablea worksheet for speeds of 35 required number of crossing pedestrians for a given major- mph (55 km/h) or less and a worksheet for speeds that exceed road vehicle volume.

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66 Step 1. Select worksheet based on (1) posted or statutory speed limit or the 85 th percentile speed on the major street and (2) other conditions present: a) Worksheet 1 - 35 mph (55 km/h) or less b) Worksheet 2 - Exceeds 35 mph (55 km/h) or locations where the community has a less than 10,000 population or where a major transit stop is present Step 2. Does the crossing meet minimum peak-hour pedestrian volumes to be considered for a traffic control device type of treatment? NO Consider median refuge islands, curb YES extensions, traffic calming, etc. as Go to Step 3 feasible. No traffic control devices are recommended. Step 3. Does the crossing meet the warrant for a traffic signal? YES Warrant met, consider traffic signal if NO site is not within 300 ft (91 m) of Go to Step 4 another signal. Step 4. Estimate pedestrian delay. Step 5. Select treatment based upon total pedestrian delay and expected motorist compliance. Figure A-1. Flowchart for Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatments.

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67 Table A-1. Input Variables for Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatment. INPUT VARIABLES TERM DISCUSSION ROAD CHARACTERISTICS Speed on the major Smaj Use the major road posted or statutory speed limit for the street (mph) facilities or, if available, the 85th percentile speed to determine which worksheet is applicable. Worksheet 1 is used when the speed is 35 mph (55 km/h) or less, while Worksheet 2 is used when the speed exceeds 35 mph (55 km/h). Pedestrian crossing L Pedestrian crossing distance represents the distance that a distance (ft) pedestrian would need to cross before reaching either the far curb or a median refuge island. The distance would be between the near and far curbs if a painted or raised median refuge island is not present, or to the median refuge island if the island is present. Note if a parking stall is present, its width should be included in the crossing distance measurement. Crossing distance rather than number of lanes was selected for the procedure so that the extra time needed by a pedestrian to cross bike lanes, two-way left-turn lanes, wide lanes, etc. could be considered. COUNTS Peak-hour Vp Pedestrian volume is the number of pedestrian volume pedestrians crossing the major crossing major roadway in a peak hour. The count roadway (ped/h) includes all pedestrian crossings of the major roadway at the location. Major road peak Vmaj-s Vehicle volume represents the number of vehicles and bicycles hour vehicle Vmaj-d on both approaches of the major road during a peak hour. If a volume (veh/h) painted or raised median refuge island is present of sufficient size to store pedestrians (minimum of 6 ft [1.8 m] wide), then consider the volume on each approach individually. In the signal warrant calculations, use the volume on both approaches (Vmaj-s). For the delay calculations, the volume (Vmaj-d) would reflect either both approaches if a refuge island is not present or each approach individually if a refuge island is present. LOCAL PARAMETERS Motorist Comp Compliance reflects the typical behavior of motorists for the site. compliance for If motorists tend to stop for a pedestrian attempting to cross at region (high or low) an uncontrolled location, then compliance is "high." If motorists rarely stop for a crossing pedestrian, then compliance is "low." Pedestrian walking Sp Walking speed represents the speed of the crossing speed (ft/s) pedestrians. Recent research has suggested walking speeds of 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) for the general population and 3.0 ft/s (0.9 m/s) for the older population. If calculating for a site, determine the 15th percentile value of those using the crossing. Pedestrian start-up ts Start-up time is used in the calculation of the critical gap. A time and end value of 3 s is suggested in the Highway Capacity Manual. clearance time (s)

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68 Table A-2. Calculations for Guidelines for Pedestrian Crossing Treatment. CALCs TERM DISCUSSION Signal SC Regression equations were determined for the plots shown in the warrant 2003 MUTCD Figures 4C-3 and 4C-4. These equations can check calculate the minimum number of vehicles that would be needed (ped/h) at the given major road volume to meet the signal warrant. The recommendation made in 2006 to the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices is that the vehicles signal warrants values for crossing two lanes be used as the pedestrian signal warrant values. Because the pedestrian signal warrant is to reflect total pedestrian crossings rather than just the number of pedestrians on the higher approach, the vehicle signal warrant values should be divided by 0.75 to reflect an assumed directional distribution split of 75/25. Different equations are provided for low- speed and high-speed conditions. The worksheets provide instructions on checking the peak hour. Both the peak vehicle hour and the peak pedestrian hour may need to be checked. Critical gap Tc Critical gap is the time in seconds below which a pedestrian will (s) not attempt to begin crossing the street. For a single pedestrian, critical gap (tc) can be computed using Equation 18-17 of the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. The equation includes consideration of the pedestrian walking speed (Sp), crossing distance (L), and start-up and end clearance times (t s). tc = (L/Sp) + ts Major road v Flow rate is a measure of the number of vehicles per second (v). flow rate For high-speed conditions, the number of vehicles is adjusted by (veh/s) dividing by 0.7. Flow rate is determined by: Low speed: v = Vmaj-p/3600 high speed: v = (Vmaj-p/0.7)/3600 It is based on the major road volume (Vmaj-d), which is the total of both approaches (or the approach being crossed if median refuge island is present) during the peak hour (veh/h). Average dp The 2000 Highway Capacity Manual includes Equation 18-21 that pedestrian can be used to determine the average delay per pedestrian at an delay unsignalized intersection crossing (s/person). (s/person) dp = 1 (e vt c - vt c - 1) v It depends upon critical gap (tc), the vehicular flow rate of the crossing (v), and the mean vehicle headway. Total Dp Total pedestrian delay (Dp) uses the average pedestrian delay (dp) pedestrian and multiplies that value by the number of pedestrians (Vp) to delay determine the total pedestrian delay for the approach. (ped-h) Dp = (dp Vp)/3,600

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69 WORKSHEET 1: PEAK-HOUR, 35 MPH (55 KM/H) OR LESS Analyst and Site Information Analyst: Major Street: Analysis Date: Minor Street or Location: Data Collection Date: Peak Hour: th Step 1: Select worksheet (speed reflects posted or statutory speed limit or 85 percentile speed on the major street): a) Worksheet 1 35 mph (55 km/h) or less b) Worksheet 2 exceeds 35 mph (55 km/h), communities with less than 10,000, or where major transit stop exists Step 2: Does the crossing meet minimum pedestrian volumes to be considered for a TCD type of treatment? Peak-hour pedestrian volume (ped/h), Vp 2a If 2a 20 ped/h, then go to Step 3. If 2a < 20 ped/h, then consider median refuge islands, curb extensions, traffic calming, etc. as feasible. Step 3: Does the crossing meet the pedestrian volume warrant for a traffic signal? Major road volume, total of both approaches during peak hour (veh/h), Vmaj-s 3a Minimum signal warrant volume for peak hour (use 3a for Vmaj-s), SC SC = (0.00021 Vmaj-s2 0.74072 Vmaj-s + 734.125)/0.75 3b 2 OR [(0.00021 3a 0.74072 3a + 734.125)/0.75] If 3b < 133, then enter 133. If 3b 133, then enter 3b. 3c th If 15 percentile crossing speed of pedestrians is less than 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s), then reduce 3c by 3d up to 50 percent; otherwise enter 3c. If 2a 3d, then the warrant has been met and a traffic signal should be considered if not within 300 ft (91 m) of another traffic signal. Otherwise, the warrant has not been met. Go to Step 4. Step 4: Estimate pedestrian delay. Pedestrian crossing distance, curb to curb (ft), L 4a Pedestrian walking speed (ft/s), Sp 4b Pedestrian start-up time and end clearance time (s), ts 4c Critical gap required for crossing pedestrian (s), tc = (L/Sp) + ts OR [(4a/4b) + 4c)] 4d Major road volume, total both approaches or approach being crossed if median refuge 4e island is present during peak hour (veh/h), Vmaj-d Major road flow rate (veh/s), v = Vmaj-d/3600 OR [4e/3600] 4f v tc 4f x 4d Average pedestrian delay (s/person), dp = (e v tc 1) / v OR [ (e 4f x 4d 1) / 4f ] 4g Total pedestrian delay (h), Dp = (dp V p)/3,600 OR [(4g 2a)/3600] (this is estimated delay for all pedestrians crossing the major roadway without a crossing 4h treatment assumes 0% compliance). This calculated value can be replaced with the actual total pedestrian delay measured at the site. Step 5: Select treatment based upon total pedestrian delay and expected motorist compliance. Expected motorist compliance at pedestrian crossings in region, Comp = high or low 5a Total Pedestrian Delay, Dp (from 4h) and Treatment Category Motorist Compliance, Comp (from 5a) (see Descriptions of Sample Treatments for examples) Dp 21.3 h (Comp = high or low) OR RED 5.3 h Dp < 21.3 h and Comp = low 1.3 h Dp < 5.3 h (Comp = high or low) ACTIVE OR OR 5.3 h Dp < 21.3 h and Comp = high ENHANCED Dp < 1.3 h (Comp = high or low) CROSSWALK Figure A-2. Worksheet 1.

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70 WORKSHEET 2: PEAK-HOUR, EXCEEDS 35 MPH (55 KM/H) Analyst and Site Information Analyst: Major Street: Analysis Date: Minor Street or Location: Data Collection Date: Peak Hour: Step 1: Select worksheet (speed reflects posted or statutory speed limit or 85th percentile speed on the major street): a) Worksheet 1 35 mph (55 km/h) or less b) Worksheet 2 exceeds 35 mph (55 km/h), communities with less than 10,000, or where major transit stop exists Step 2: Does the crossing meet minimum pedestrian volumes to be considered for a TCD type of treatment? Peak-hour pedestrian volume (ped/h), Vp 2a If 2a 14 ped/h, then go to Step 3. If 2a < 14 ped/h, then consider median refuge islands, curb extensions, traffic calming, etc. as feasible. Step 3: Does the crossing meet the pedestrian volume warrant for a traffic signal? Major road volume, total of both approaches during peak hour (veh/h), Vmaj-s 3a Minimum signal warrant volume for peak hour (use 3a for Vmaj-s), SC SC = (0.00035 Vmaj-s2 0.80083 Vmaj-s + 529.197)/0.75 3b 2 OR [(0.00035 3a 0.80083 3a + 529.197)/0.75] If 3b < 93, then enter 93. If 3b 93, then enter 3b. 3c If 15th percentile crossing speed of pedestrians is less than 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s), then reduce 3c by 3d up to 50 percent; otherwise enter 3c. If 2a 3d, then the warrant has been met and a traffic signal should be considered if not within 300 ft (91 m) of another traffic signal. Otherwise, the warrant has not been met. Go to Step 4. Step 4: Estimate pedestrian delay. Pedestrian crossing distance, curb to curb (ft), L 4a Pedestrian walking speed (ft/s), Sp 4b Pedestrian start-up time and end clearance time (s), ts 4c Critical gap required for crossing pedestrian (s), tc = (L/Sp) + ts OR [(4a/4b) + 4c)] 4d Major road volume, total both approaches or approach being crossed if median refuge 4e island is present during peak hour (veh/h), Vmaj-d Major road flow rate (veh/s), v = (Vmaj-d/0.7)/3600 OR [(4e/0.7)/3600] 4f v tc 4f x 4d Average pedestrian delay (s/person), dp = (e v tc 1) / v OR [ (e 4f x 4d 1) / 4f ] 4g Total pedestrian delay (h), Dp = (dp V p)/3,600 OR [(4g 2a)/3600] (this is estimated delay for all pedestrians crossing the major roadway without a crossing 4h treatment assumes 0% compliance). This calculated value can be replaced with the actual total pedestrian delay measured at the site. Step 5: Select treatment based upon total pedestrian delay and expected motorist compliance. Expected motorist compliance at pedestrian crossings in region, Comp = high or low 5a Total Pedestrian Delay, Dp (from 4h) and Treatment Category Motorist Compliance, Comp (from 5a) (see Descriptions of Sample Treatments for examples) Dp 21.3 h (Comp = high or low) OR RED 5.3 h Dp < 21.3 h and Comp = low Dp < 5.3 h (Comp = high or low) ACTIVE OR OR 5.3 h Dp < 21.3 h and Comp = high ENHANCED Figure A-3. Worksheet 2.

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71 Step 4: Estimate Approach Pedestrian Delay are crossing the roadway during the peak hour, some form of a pedestrian treatment is suggested. The average pedestrian delay equation from the 2000 High- Step 3: Check Signal Warrant. The minimum number of way Capacity Manual is used to determine the approach pedestrians needed on the minor-road approach crossing pedestrian delay. a four-lane roadway with 1,000 vehicles in the peak hour is 271. The number of crossing pedestrians (50) is less than Step 5: Select Appropriate Treatment the 271 value; therefore, a signal is not warranted under the pedestrian volume warrant. Checking the peak vehicle The total pedestrian delay along with the expected compli- hour provides the same result: a signal is not warranted ance is used to determine the treatment category to consider under the pedestrian volume warrant. for the site. Step 4: Estimate Approach Pedestrian Delay. The average pedestrian delay equation was used to determine the total pedestrian delay. A total pedestrian delay value of 9.8 Example Using Guidelines ped-h was calculated. Known Step 5: Select Appropriate Treatment. The motorist com- pliance observed at the site is "high." With a total pedes- Citizens have requested a pedestrian treatment at the 2700 trian delay value of 9.8 ped-h and a motorist compliance of block crossing of Elm Street. Known characteristics of the site high, the worksheet indicates that an "enhanced/active" include device should be considered. Figure A-5 shows the solution using the major roadway volume of 1,000 veh/h and the Four-lane road with no pedestrian refuge median; pedestrian volume of 50. The intersection of these two 56 ft (17 m) crossing distance; lines (see circle in Figure A-5) results in the same finding: 35 mph (55 km/h) speed limit; "enhanced/active" device. The following section lists sug- During the peak pedestrian hour, 50 pedestrians counted gested treatments within the categories. when the major-road volume was 1,000 veh/h; During the peak vehicle hour, 20 pedestrians counted when the major-road volume was 1,500 veh/h; and Descriptions of Sample Motorists observed stopping for pedestrians, showing a Treatments "high" compliance. The treatments included in these guidelines are divided into broad classes of elements and devices. Elements are used The following assumptions were made: either uniquely or to supplement a device. A device represents the primary component of a pedestrian treatment. Walking speed is 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) and The elements discussed here have been divided into two Start-up time is 3 seconds. categories: Supplemental Signs and Markings. This category is com- Calculations posed of applications of signs and markings beyond the stan- Figure A-1 provides an overview of the procedure. Tables dard crosswalk markings and pedestrian crossing signs A-1 and A-2 list the variables needed for the evaluation and discussed in the "Crosswalk" category of devices below. Items the calculations that are to be performed, respectively. The in this category include advance stop lines and advance following are the procedures for this example: signing. Geometric Elements. This category pertains to crosswalk Step 1: Select Worksheet. Worksheet 1 is the applicable elements that are permanent installations but are not signs, worksheet for a speed limit of 35 mph (55 km/h). Figure markings, or devices. These are elements installed based on A-4 shows the worksheet with appropriate values for the engineering judgment rather than a warrant and include example. Given that the assumed walking speed and the items such as median refuge islands and curb extensions. crosswalk length match the values used to generate one of the figures included in the guidelines, that plot can be used The devices discussed here have been divided into five rather than using Worksheet 1 to determine the suggested categories: pedestrian treatment. Figure A-5 shows the plot. Step 2: Check Minimum Pedestrian Volume. The next Crosswalk. This category encompasses standard crosswalk step is to determine if a minimum number of pedestrians markings and pedestrian crossing signs, as opposed to are present at the site. Because more than 20 pedestrians unmarked crossings.

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72 WORKSHEET 1: PEAK-HOUR, 35 MPH (55 KM/H) OR LESS Analyst and Site Information Analyst: Maria Major Street: Elm Analysis Date: 1/19/06 Minor Street or Location: 2700 Block Data Collection Date: 1/19/06 Peak Hour: 5 to 6 pm th Step 1: Select worksheet (speed reflects posted or statutory speed limit or 85 percentile speed on the major street): a) Worksheet 1 35 mph (55 km/h) or less b) Worksheet 2 exceeds 35 mph (55 km/h), communities with less than 10,000, or where major transit stop exists Step 2: Does the crossing meet minimum pedestrian volumes to be considered for a TCD type of treatment? Peak-hour pedestrian volume (ped/h), Vp 2a 50 If 2a 20 ped/h, then go to Step 3. If 2a < 20 ped/h, then consider median refuge islands, curb extensions, traffic calming, etc. as feasible. Step 3: Does the crossing meet the pedestrian volume warrant for a traffic signal? Major road volume, total of both approaches during peak hour (veh/h), Vmaj-s 3a 1000 Minimum signal warrant volume for peak hour (use 3a for Vmaj-s), SC SC = (0.00021 Vmaj-s2 0.74072 Vmaj-s + 734.125)/0.75 3b 271 2 OR [(0.00021 3a 0.74072 3a + 734.125)/0.75] If 3b < 133, then enter 133. If 3b 133, then enter 3b. 3c 271 th If 15 percentile crossing speed of pedestrians is less than 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s), then reduce 3c by 3d 271 up to 50 percent; otherwise enter 3c. If 2a 3d, then the warrant has been met and a traffic signal should be considered if not within 300 ft (91 m) of another traffic signal. Otherwise, the warrant has not been met. Go to Step 4. Step 4: Estimate pedestrian delay. Pedestrian crossing distance, curb to curb (ft), L 4a 56 Pedestrian walking speed (ft/s), Sp 4b 3.5 Pedestrian start-up time and end clearance time (s), ts 4c 3 Critical gap required for crossing pedestrian (s), tc = (L/Sp) + ts OR [(4a/4b) + 4c)] 4d 19 Major road volume, total both approaches or approach being crossed if median refuge 4e 1000 island is present during peak hour (veh/h), Vmaj-d Major road flow rate (veh/s), v = Vmaj-d/3600 OR [4e/3600] 4f 0.2 8 Average pedestrian delay (s/person), dp = (ev tc v tc 1) / v OR [ (e4f x 4d 4f x 4d 1) / 4f ] 4g 707 Total pedestrian delay (h), Dp = (dp V p)/3,600 OR [(4g 2a)/3600] (this is estimated delay for all pedestrians crossing the major roadway without a crossing 4h 9.8 treatment assumes 0% compliance). This calculated value can be replaced with the actual total pedestrian delay measured at the site. Step 5: Select treatment based upon total pedestrian delay and expected motorist compliance. Expected motorist compliance at pedestrian crossings in region, Comp = high or low 5a high Total Pedestrian Delay, Dp (from 4h) and Treatment Category Motorist Compliance, Comp (from 5a) (see Descriptions of Sample Treatments for examples) Dp 21.3 h (Comp = high or low) OR RED 5.3 h Dp < 21.3 h and Comp = low 1.3 h Dp < 5.3 h (Comp = high or low) ACTIVE OR OR 5.3 h Dp < 21.3 h and Comp = high ENHANCED Dp < 1.3 h (Comp = high or low) CROSSWALK Figure A-4. Example Problem Crossing at Elm Street.

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73 700 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 600 500 E/A HC, Red LC* Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 400 E/A* 300 200 Crosswalk 100 Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-5. Graphical Solution to Example Problem. Enhanced. This category includes those devices that The summaries are based on observations of installed enhance the visibility of the crossing location and pedes- treatments and discussions with traffic engineers who have trians waiting to cross. Warning signs, markings, or bea- used or considered using one or more of the components. cons in this category are present or active at the crossing This selection of pedestrian crossing treatments is not neces- location at all times. sarily an all-inclusive list, nor is it intended to be. As technol- Active. Also called "active when present," this category ogy changes and as more jurisdictions study ways to address includes those devices designed to display a warning only the issue of pedestrian crossings, other treatments will likely when pedestrians are present or crossing the street. be discussed and/or tested. Red. This category includes those devices that display a cir- cular red indication (signal or beacon) to motorists at the pedestrian location. Additional Sources of Information on Signal. This category pertains to traffic control signals. Pedestrian Treatments Additional information on treatments is available from the Synopses of Treatments following references: Synopses of selected pedestrian crossing treatments are Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and presented in Table A-3. Highways. U.S. DOT, FHWA, Washington, D.C., 2003. Available online at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/, accessed June 2, 2005. Categories of Treatments A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets Tables A-4 through A-20 summarize information on exam- (called the Green Book). AASHTO, Washington, D.C., ples of selected pedestrian crossing treatments. These sum- 2003. maries reflect the more common treatments being used and Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian do not include every device or treatment available. The Facilities (called the Ped Guide). AASHTO, Washington, following summaries are intended to provide general descrip- D.C., July 2004. tions of pedestrian crossing treatments that may be installed Zegeer, C. V., C. Seiderman, P. Lagerwey, M. Cynecki, M. at intersections and/or midblock crossings; in all cases, engi- Ronkin, and R. Schneider. Pedestrian Facilities User Guide neering judgment should be used in selecting a specific treat- Providing Safety and Mobility. FHWA-RD-01-102, ment for installation. FHWA, Washington, D.C., March 2002.

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74 Table A-3. Synopsis of Crossing Treatments. Treatment Characteristics Advance Signing Provides additional notification to drivers that a crosswalk is near Advance Stop Line Vehicle stop line is moved back from the crosswalk and Sign Median Refuge Accessible pedestrian path within a raised median Island Raised Crosswalk Crosswalk surface elevated above driving lanes Curb Extension Curb adjacent to crosswalk lengthened by the width of the parking lane Roadway Reduced lane widths and/or number of vehicle lanes Narrowing Markings and Standard crosswalk markings and pedestrian crossing signs Crossing Signs Subject to MUTCD requirements In-Street Regulatory signs placed in the street Pedestrian Subject to MUTCD requirements Crossing Signs High-Visibility Warning devices placed at or in advance of the pedestrian Signs and crossing Markings Subject to MUTCD requirements In-Roadway Amber flashing lights mounted flush to the pavement surface Warning Lights at the crossing location Pedestrian Square flags on a stick carried by pedestrians Crossing Flags Stored in sign-mounted holders on both sides of the street Experimental; not currently in the MUTCD Overhead Flashing Mounted on mast arms that extend over the roadway or on Amber Beacons signposts at the roadside Pedestrian activated Subject to MUTCD requirements Pedestrian Standard traffic signal at a pedestrian crosswalk Crosswalk Signal Pedestrian activated Half Signal Standard traffic signal on major road Experimental; not currently in the MUTCD HAWK Beacon Combination of a beacon flasher and a traffic control signal Signal Dwells in a dark mode; pedestrian activated Used exclusively in Tucson and Pima County, Arizona Experimental; not currently in the MUTCD Pedestrian Beacon Proposed device; not currently in the MUTCD Pedestrian activated Traffic Signal Standard traffic signal at an intersection or midblock location Pedestrian phase typically activated by a pushbutton Subject to MUTCD requirements

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75 Table A-4. Supplemental Signs and Markings: Advance Signing. Advance Signing Advance signing is used to provide additional MUTCD Description: Non- notification to drivers that a crosswalk is near and vehicular signs may be used pedestrians may be crossing the roadway. to alert road users in advance Advance signing may be used in a wide variety of of locations where situations (intersections, midblock crossings, unexpected entries into the school-related crosswalks, two-lane or multi-lane roadway or shared use of the roads, and divided or undivided roads), but they are roadway by pedestrians, particularly useful at locations where a crosswalk animals, and other crossing might be unexpected by approaching drivers. activities might occur. When used in advance of a crossing, non-vehicular warning signs may be supplemented with supplemental plaques with the legend AHEAD, XX FEET, or NEXT XX MILES to provide advance notice to road users of crossing activity. Pedestrian, Bicycle, and School signs and their related supplemental plaques may have a fluorescent yellow- green background with a black legend and border. Advance Sign with Advisory Speed Plaque for School Crosswalk MUTCD Guidance: When a fluorescent yellow-green background is used, a systematic approach featuring one background color within a zone or area should be used. The mixing of standard yellow and fluorescent yellow-green backgrounds within a selected site area should be avoided. Non-vehicular signs should be used only at locations where the crossing activity is unexpected or at locations not readily apparent. Advance Sign for Midblock Crossing

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88 Table A-17. Red Device: Half Signals. Half Signals A half signal (also known as an intersection Guidance: Half signals are pedestrian signal) is a standard traffic signal with used to provide signal control red, yellow, and green indications that is located at for a pedestrian crossing the an intersecting cross street with Stop control. The major street while minimizing pedestrian phase for a half signal is typically delay for major street traffic activated by a pushbutton. In the United States, by retaining Stop sign control most half signals dwell in steady green, whereas on the minor street. This most half signals in British Columbia dwell in treatment has been used at flashing green. locations where there is heavy pedestrian demand to Half signals are experimental and are not currently cross the major street but the included in the MUTCD. Permission for side street traffic on the minor experimentation is needed. approach is light. The lack of signal control on the side street does not attract more Signal Heads on traffic to the street as Major Approaches conventional intersection signals would. Installation and Operation: The cost of installation is significant. Drivers on side streets may be confused about right-of-way assignment: the side street right-of-way relies on gaps in Stop Sign on main street traffic to enter or Minor Approach cross the main street. If the crosswalk is clear, drivers on Intersection Pedestrian Signal (Half Signal) side streets may use the gap created by the signal to proceed through the intersection. This treatment has been tested in several cities including Portland, Oregon; Seattle, Washington; and Fairfax, Virginia.

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89 Table A-18. Red Device: HAWK Beacon Signals. HAWK A HAWK beacon signal provides yellow and red Description: The objective indications. The current configuration for a HAWK is of a HAWK (high-intensity two red lenses above a yellow lens in a "Mickey activated crosswalk) signal is Mouse Ears" format. The HAWK beacon signal, used to stop vehicles to allow exclusively in Tucson and Pima County, Arizona, pedestrians to cross while dwells in a dark mode until activated by a pedestrian also allowing vehicles to by means of a pushbutton. proceed as soon as the pedestrians have passed. It The HAWK is currently not included in the MUTCD. is a combination of a beacon Permission for experimentation is needed. flasher and a traffic control signal. This application provides a pedestrian crossing without signal control for the side street. Operation: The inclusion of the alternating flashing red permits stop-and-go vehicle operations after a pedestrian has cleared the crosswalk. Observations: Drivers are HAWK Signal more likely to stop for a device that displays a red indication. Driver education has been an active component in those communities using a HAWK signal. Confusion may result from the dark beacon signal display, as drivers may interpret it as a power outage; however, that has not been a problem where implemented. Close-Up of HAWK Signal Head

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90 Table A-19. Red Device: Pedestrian Beacon. Proposed Pedestrian Beacon A pedestrian beacon is a proposed special highway Proposed Guidance for traffic control signal used at some locations for the MUTCD: If a traffic pedestrians waiting to cross or crossing the street. A control signal is not pedestrian beacon is proposed to be considered for justified under the signal installation at a midblock location that does not meet warrants of Chapter 4C other traffic signal warrants to facilitate pedestrian and if gaps in traffic are not crossings. The pedestrian phase for a pedestrian adequate to permit beacon would be activated by a pedestrian. The red reasonably safe pedestrian portion of the cycle for vehicles consists of a sequence crossings, or if the speed of a steady red indication (during the pedestrian for vehicles approaching crossing interval) followed by flashing red indications on the major street is too (during the pedestrian clearance interval). high to permit reasonably safe street crossings for This device has been suggested to be included in pedestrians, or if future editions of the MUTCD. pedestrian delay is excessive, installing a pedestrian traffic control signal should be considered. Proposed Sign to Accompany a Pedestrian Dark until Flashing Yellow for Steady Yellow for Beacon: Activated 3 to 6 s 3 to 6 s Steady Red Alternating Flashing Red during during Pedestrian Pedestrian Clearance Interval Interval Example of Phase Sequence for a Pedestrian Beacon

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91 Table A-20. Signal: Traffic Control Signals. Traffic Control Signals Standard traffic signals and warrants for their MUTCD Standard: The consideration are described in the MUTCD. In need for a traffic control particular, Warrant 4 of the 2003 edition deals with signal at an intersection or a traffic signals for pedestrians. midblock crossing shall be considered if an engineering The pedestrian volume signal warrant is intended for study finds that the application where the traffic volume on a major appropriate criteria are met. street is so heavy that pedestrians experience This warrant shall not be excessive delay in crossing the major street. A applied at locations where signal may not be needed at the study location if the distance to the nearest adjacent coordinated traffic control signals traffic signal is less than consistently provide gaps of adequate length for 300 ft (91 m) unless the pedestrians to cross the street. proposed signal will not restrict the progressive movement of traffic. MUTCD Guidance: If at an intersection, the signal should be traffic actuated and include pedestrian detectors. If installed within a signal system, the signal should be coordinated. If at a midblock crossing, the signal should be pedestrian Traffic Control Signal with Pedestrian Crossing actuated, parking and other Sign (Current Version of Sign Does Not Include obstructions should be Crosswalk Markings) prohibited for at least 100 ft (31 m) in advance of and at least 20 ft (6.1 m) beyond the crosswalk, and the installation should include standard signs and pavement markings. Pedestrian Using Pushbutton Detector to Activate WALK Indication at Traffic Control Signal

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92 Lalani, N., and ITE Pedestrian and Bicycle Task Force. Illustrations of Guidelines Alternative Treatments for At-Grade Pedestrian Crossings. ITE Informational Report, ITE, Washington, D.C., 2001. Graphs were generated to illustrate the guidelines for the Zegeer, C., J. Stuart, and H. Huang. Safety Effects of Marked readers and are included as Figures A-6 through A-19. These graphs should be used only when the major-road speed, the vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Crossing Loca- pedestrian walking speed, and the crossing distance are tions. FHWA, Washington, D.C., 2001. matched to the value presented at the top of the graph. For PedSafe: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure other situations, the reader should use the equations listed in Selection System. http://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsafe/ the worksheets. 700 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 600 500 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 400 300 E/A* E/A HC, Red LC* Crosswalk 200 100 Red No Treatment 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (Veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-6. Guidelines Plot, 34 ft (10.4 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed. 500 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 400 Signal (proposed for 300 MUTCD) 200 Crosswalk E/A HC, Red LC* E/A* 100 Red No Treatment 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-7. Guidelines Plot, 34 ft (10.4 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.0 ft/s (0.9 km/h) Walking Speed.

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93 700 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 600 500 E/A HC, Red LC* Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 400 E/A* 300 200 Crosswalk 100 Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-8. Guidelines Plot, 56 ft (17 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed. 500 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 400 Signal (proposed for 300 MUTCD) E/A HC, Red LC* 200 E/A* 100 Crosswalk Red No Treatment 0 1 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-9. Guidelines Plot, 56 ft (17 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.0 ft/s (0.9 m/s) Walking Speed.

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94 700 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 600 500 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 400 E/A HC, Red LC* 300 E/A* 200 Crosswalk 100 Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-10. Guidelines Plot, 50 ft (17 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed. 500 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 400 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 300 E/A HC, Red LC* 200 100 E/A* Red 0 No Treatment 1 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-11. Guidelines Plot, 50 ft (17 m) Pavement, >35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed.

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95 700 E/A HC, Red LC* Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 600 500 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 400 300 E/A* 200 100 Crosswalk Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-12. Guidelines Plot, 72 ft (22 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed. 500 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) E/A HC, Red LC* 400 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 300 200 100 E/A* Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-13. Guidelines Plot, 72 ft (22 m) Pavement, >35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed.

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96 700 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 600 E/A HC, Red LC* 500 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 400 300 E/A* 200 100 Crosswalk Red 0 No Treatment 1 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-14. Guidelines Plot, 66 ft (20 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed. 700 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 600 500 400 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 300 200 Crosswalk 100 E/A HC, RED LC* E/A* Red 0 No Treatment 0.5 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - One Approach (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-15. Guidelines Plot, Divided Roadway with Pedestrian Refuge Island, Crossing 36 ft (11 m) Pavement, < 35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed (Plot Assumed 50/50 Volume Split for Signal Curve).

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97 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 500 E/A HC, Red LC* 400 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 300 200 E/A* 100 Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-16. Guidelines Plot, 66 ft (20 m) Pavement, >35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed. 500 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 400 300 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 200 E/A HC, RED LC* 100 E/A* Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - One Approach (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-17. Guidelines Plot, Divided Roadway with Pedestrian Refuge Island, Crossing 36 ft (11 m) Pavement, >35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed (Plot Assumed 50/50 Volume Split for Signal Curve).

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98 500 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 400 E/A HC, Red LC* 300 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 200 100 E/A* Red No Treatment 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - Total of Both Approaches (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-18. Guidelines Plot, 100 ft (31 m) Pavement, >35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed. 500 Pedestrian Volume Crossing Major Road (ped/h) 400 300 Signal (proposed for MUTCD) 200 E/A HC, RED LC* 100 E/A* Red 0 No Treatment 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 Major Road Volume - One Approach (veh/h) *E/A = Enhanced/Active, HC = High Compliance, LC = Low Compliance Figure A-19. Guidelines Plot, Divided Roadway with Pedestrian Refuge Island, Crossing 44 ft (13.4 m) Pavement, >35 mph (55 km/h), 3.5 ft/s (1.1 m/s) Walking Speed (Plot Assumed 50/50 Volume Split for Signal Curve).