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27 calendars, websites, web casts, Internet discussion rooms to access frequently asked questions and answers for issues that help link communities of practice, and listserv for the elec- arise as part of getting work done. In some of the most sophis- tronic tools. The more traditional tools used by state DOTs ticated learning environments, the learner can select the type include newsletters, magazines, meetings, conferences, sem- of training based on his or her personal style of learning; for inars, and other group gatherings. example, visually, and auditory. Although there is not yet a significant longitudinal body of data about these new At the 2005 National Transportation Training Directors approaches to learning, the early results suggest that "just in Conference, Dr. Allison Rossett provided an extensive pre- time learning" and these more tailored learning approaches sentation on the impact of technology on the development and provide for significantly greater information retention than delivery of training and development programs. She outlined more traditional teaching methods. Additional information the evolution of technology's impact on training delivery. about this topic can be found on Rossett's website: http:// Currently, training delivery is still primarily instructor edweb. focused, with technology providing tools to assist in the learn- ing process. However, the more advanced public and private organizations are moving to "learner centered" training deliv- SUMMARY ery, including on-demand training with access through the web, in person and electronic discussion groups, and similar The survey responses have provided a useful overview of techniques to ensure a well-trained staff. The most advanced both the training program infrastructure of individual DOTs organizations have gone one step further and are integrating and the patterns of similarity and difference between and performance and learning. For example, if a manager has a among state DOTs. Supplemented by the information gath- performance management problem, he or she can go online to ered through detailed discussions with training directors and a resource center and have immediately at hand not only the their staff members, and through participation at the 2005 organization's policies and procedures, with successful prac- Training Directors Conference, a real sense of the practices, tices for handling a variety of performance issues, but the issues, and challenges facing state DOTs as they work to pro- names and contact information of experts who are available vide an appropriate administrative infrastructure to support electronically or in person to discuss the issues and the poten- training and development activities in their organizations can tial solutions to the problem. An individual employee can be provided.