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29 Performance metrics indicate that since 1998 DAU has and Measuring Results is available at http://www.opm.gov/ increased the number of students trained from 33,000 to 72,000 hrd/lead/pubs/spguide.pdf. per year, reduced faculty/staff from 643 to 540, and cut student travel costs from US$531 million to $18 million per year. The sav- ings freed resources for e-learning, curricula modernization, and extended reach. This helped fund DAU's Continuous Learning SUCCESSFUL PRACTICES IN TRAINING Center with over 60 modules that now has more than 200,000 PROGRAM DESIGN registered users, and expanded the reach of DAU's learning products into more than 116 countries worldwide. As part of its ongoing work to review issues relevant to Deloitte & Touche USA LLP--The key to effective new learning human capital challenges, the U.S. General Accountability solutions is sometimes marketing and communications. Deloitte & Office (GAO) assessed the lessons learned by six public Touche discovered that marketing and communications is the key organizations about the design of training and development to successful new learning solutions after launching its learning programs. As part of this analysis, GAO offers its sugges- website--a virtual university and centralized learning hub for its tions of successful practices (see Figure 3). This particular 30,000+ workforce. Investment in a marketing/communications arm of the training organization significantly contributed to increases of report was prepared at the request of Senator George V. 816% in learning website users and 745% in e-learning courses Voinovich who, when Governor of Ohio, introduced a vari- completed. ety of learning programs in the state to improve individual and organization performance. The report defines an ana- lytical framework for assessing training programs. The PLANNING TRAINING AND MEASURING framework is anchored in GAO's model for strategic RESULTS human capital, which has four components--leadership; strategic human capital planning; acquiring, developing, The U.S. Office of Personnel Management, the central and retaining talent; and results-oriented organizational human capital agency for federal organizations, has com- culture (Figure 3). Under the leadership of Comptroller piled a "how to" manual entitled A Guide to Strategically General David Walker, GAO has earned a worldwide rep- Planning Training and Measuring Results (2000). The Guide utation for its work in improving human capital manage- defines a four-step process to assist in this endeavor: ment programs. Step 1: Analyze Established Goals to Identify Training The suggested analytical framework for training and devel- Requirements opment also has four components--planning and front-end Step 2: Develop Training Strategies to Achieve Goals analysis, design and development, implementation, and evalu- Step 3: Integrate Training into Strategic Plans ation (see Figure 4). The six case studies ". . . focused on ways Step 4: Evaluate Training Goal Accomplishment. these agencies (1) assessed agency skills gaps and identified training needs, (2) developed strategies and solutions to these The Guide's introduction states: identified training and development needs, and (3) determined methods to evaluate the effectiveness of training and develop- Chances are that you have read something lately or participated ment programs." They provide rich detail about real experi- in discussions about the payoffs of investing in training. For ences in identifying needs, developing solutions for those needs example, two major corporations recently made front page news by providing their employees with home computers. These and evaluating the results achieved. corporations believe that this investment will contribute to an acceleration of skills for both employees and the company throughout the 21st century. In the business world there is increasing recognition that training the workforce is a win-win SUCCESSFUL PRACTICES IN TECHNOLOGY business strategy. At the 2005 National Transportation Training Directors Con- The Guide contains a wealth of best practices for learning ference, Dr. Allison Rossett, Professor of Educational Tech- organizations to use to increase their strategic focus on train- nology at San Diego State University, and a national expert ing and development activities and for measuring the results in the use of technology for training and development pro- achieved. The A Guide to Strategically Planning Training vided some perspective into the rapidly transforming world FIGURE 3 Cornerstones of GAO's Model of Strategic Human Capital Management (Source: GAO).