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7 CHAPTER TWO ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE TRAINING PROGRAM Workers today must be equipped not simply with technical know organization thinks the course is worth an organiza- how but also with the ability to create, analyze, and transform tional investment, and where the training program information and to interact effectively with others. Alan Greenspan offerings will be available. Federal Reserve Board Chairman As is usually the case in today's world there are thousands of electronic and print books and articles relevant to the INTRODUCTION issues. To provide the maximum assistance to readers, this chapter includes the most directly relevant information to the The literature review was constructed on the principle that in topics at hand. The Bibliography cites additional references today's world a training program must be developed based on that may be useful for those who want or need to do more a broad understanding of what is happening in the world at detailed research, but that are not specifically addressed in large, as well as an understanding of the substantive work and this report. strategic goals and objectives of the state DOT. The training program must also understand its linkage and relationship to TRENDS TRANSFORMING GOVERNMENT other components of the agency's human capital program, including recruitment, retention, succession planning, and One of the most succinct summaries of what is transpiring performance management. The organization's strategic goals in public service at the state, local, and federal levels is and outcomes must drive the training and development pro- found in research completed in 2003 by the IBM Endow- gram. Other key assumptions are that to be successful train- ment for the Business of Government. The information sum- ing professionals and agency management must: marized here is found both in the article, "Four Trends that are Changing Government," from its magazine The Business · Understand that training exists as a tool to enhance of Government (Abramson et al. 2003), and in a four-volume performance. report that delves into each of the four trends in much greater · Identify the competencies that are required to achieve detail. Both the article and the books can be found at the strategic goals and outcomes of the organization, as www.businessofgovernment.org. These four trends are well as which of the occupations must possess some or important because they dictate competencies that are or will all of these particular competencies. be needed in public organizations over the next quarter of a · Analyze the degree to which the current workforce pos- century. Many organizations will need to design training sesses these competencies, and be able to identify both and development programs to ensure that their employees emerging and submerging (those competencies that are can successfully handle the evolving nature of government. no longer needed) competencies. The authors of the article, Mark A. Abramson, Jonathan · Ensure that the training and development needed for D. Breul, and John M. Kamensky, are known for their inno- employees to acquire the various competencies is avail- vative thinking and for their ability to forecast coming able either within the organization or through public changes in the operations of government. and private partners. · Develop evaluation methods that assess the degree to In the introduction to this analysis the authors assert that: which training and development programs meet both the training objectives and the larger organization goals Government is now being transformed . . . Based on five years of of the strategic plan. research on the changing ways of doing business in government · Be directly linked to the other components of the (we) have identified four significant trends that are now trans- human capital system of the organization. forming government: trend one: changing rules; trend two: emphasizing performance; trend three: improving service deliv- · Have a communications strategy and plan to ensure ery; and trend four: increasing collaboration. . . . Each of the four that decisions makers and employees at all levels in trends . . . will require a steep learning curve and will be charac- the organization understand how the training and terized by constant learning and adaptation. . . . The emphasis on development programs contribute to achieving strate- performance will also require trial and error as government learns how to measure performance and reward or penalize executives gic goals and objectives, and that these individuals for that performance. New approaches to service delivery will know what is available, when it is available, why the continue to be controversial . . . [I]ncreased collaboration will