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8 also require a steep learning curve as government learns how to employee have a shared responsibility to identify training and partner with nonprofit and profit-making organizations. . . . Over development needs and to see that those needs are met. the past five years, federal, state, and local governments have been developing approaches to link organizational goals to intended results, oftentimes in customer-centric terms and occa- Trend number four is "increasing collaboration." Citi- sionally beyond the boundaries of individual agencies. zens increasingly expect government to deliver results-- clean air, safe food, healthy kids, safe streets, and specific to The changing "rules of the game" is the first major trend the raison d'etre of state DOTs, economical, efficient trans- identified. These changing rules affect both public servants and portation. There are few public (or private) organizations private individuals and affect the fundamental administrative that are complete within themselves. The complexities of infrastructure of government including "civil service systems, these issues are such that governments are more likely to procurement practices, budgeting, and financial management. achieve successful results The new systems provide program managers with greater flex- ibility for the quid pro quo of more accountability on the part by creating collaborative efforts that reach across agencies, of program managers." This combination "appears to be a pow- across levels of government, and across the public, nonprofit, and private sectors. . . . The key tools for doing this are partner- erful incentive for encouraging results-based management." ships and networks. . . . There are two drivers for the increased use of partnerships and networks in the public sector: (1) the In three states--Florida, Georgia, and Texas--the civil communication revolution brought about by technology, which service remains merit-based, but employment is "at the will" makes collaboration easier, and (2) the shift in societal power to the `market state,' which `respects neither the borders nor the of the state. The impact of this trend on training and develop- icons of the traditional state. Additional forces include the ment programs can be seen in the way training is developed changing nature of work from labor-based production to the inte- and procured. gration of knowledge-based work. Trend number two "involves the increased emphasis on per- State DOTs are a prime example of a variety of partner- formance throughout government." For the last decade, local, ships between and among the federal government (FHWA state, and federal government organizations have worked hard and NHI); professional organizations such as AASHTO, to identify their important mission and functions and to trans- colleges, and universities; and private-sector organizations. late those into strategic plans with specific goals, objectives, At the 2005 Training Directors Conference, every training and outcomes. These then become the basis for prioritizing director described at least one type of partnership that he or work, and each program area must identify how its programs she uses to ensure that state DOT employees have access relate to and support accomplishing the goals, objectives, and to the training and development needed to ensure a well- outcomes, with a strong emphasis on results. "Results-based qualified workforce. management provides a way of focusing on what government does, instead of solely on what it spends." Two cities--New These four trends provide critical input for state DOT York City and Baltimore--"have pioneered the use of cross- training programs. They suggest different ways for training cutting performance management as a way of improving orga- programs to be developed and managed; for example, nizational performance." This second trend has had a profound through collaborative and inclusive methods rather than the affect on training and development programs that must now more traditional "silos of responsibility." They suggest demonstrate how they contribute to improved individual and emerging competencies, such as partnering or networking organizational performance. More fundamentally, training and skills that will be needed in the workforce. In addition, they development are now seen as a primary tool for improving per- focus on the need for training and development programs to formance of both individuals and organizations. demonstrate a value added contribution to the organization's strategic goals and objectives, and on the need to continually Trend number three is the demand for "improving service improve customer service with the quality, quantity, and delivery." Integral to this trend is the concept of citizens and/or timeliness of training and development programs and events. other government or private-sector organizations as cus- tomers. This trend completely refocuses how business is done TRENDS TRANSFORMING WORKFORCE so that "instead of organizing around the processes they per- AND WORKPLACE formed, they organized around those they serve." One conse- quence of this change is the growing use of websites and other To understand the challenges facing training programs in electronic methods that allow customers access 24 h a day, state DOTs it is important to first understand both workplace 7 days a week. It also assumes a shared responsibility between and employment trends that will be in operation in the United provider and customer, and leads naturally to the fourth trend. States over the next several decades. There are three primary For training and development programs trend number three factors that will influence the workplace of the future. The means changes such as multiple delivery media and the need first is a lower birth rate. In 1910, there were 30.1 births per to demonstrate, qualitatively and quantitatively, that the train- 1,000 population. By 1955, the rate was 25 births per 1,000 ing and development programs and activities are value added. population, and as of 2004 it is 14.14 births per 1,000 Furthermore, it means that the organization and the individual (National Center for Health Statistics). It is believed that the