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83 APPENDIX D ASTD Competencies Study There are many studies available that examine the competen- uses appropriate interpersonal styles and communication meth- cies needed for successful performance in the learning organi- ods to build effective long-term relationships with the client. zation. Among the very best is this work on competencies from the ASTD. There is substantial additional information on the subject at ASTD's website: www.astd.org. The website Project Manager here takes the reader directly to the competency study. Access Plans, resources, and monitors the effective delivery of learn- to this part of the website requires membership in ASTD. ing and performance solutions in a way that supports the overall business venture; communicates purpose, ensures http://www.astd.org/astd/Research/competency_study/com- effective execution of an implementation plan, removes bar- petency_doc.htm riers, ensures adequate support, and follows up. ROLES Professional Specialist Roles are broad areas of responsibility within the WLP pro- Designs, develops, delivers, or evaluates learning and per- fession that require a certain combination of competencies formance solutions; maintains and applies an in-depth work- and Areas of Expertise (AOEs) to perform effectively. They ing knowledge in any one or more of the workplace learning are described in sensible, intuitive, and everyday language. and performance specialty areas of expertise, including Like competencies, roles can be demonstrated in the context Career Planning and Talent Management, Coaching, Deliv- of most WLP jobs. Roles are not the same as job titles; they ering Training, Designing Learning, Facilitating Organiza- are much more fluid, depending on the application or the proj- tional Change, Improving Human Performance, Managing ect. For the WLP professional, playing the roles is analogous Organizational Knowledge, Managing the Learning Func- to maintaining a collection of hats when the situation calls for tion, and Measuring and Evaluating. it; the professional slips out of one role and accepts another. This study has identified four unique roles within the work- Areas of Expertise place learning and performance profession: Learning Strate- gist, Business Partner, Project Manager, and Professional Professional areas of expertise are the specific technical and Specialist. These four roles are further defined as follows: professional skills and knowledge required for success in WLP specialty areas. Think of AOEs as the knowledge and skills an individual must have above and beyond the founda- Learning Strategist tional competencies. To function effectively in a given AOE, a person must display a blend of the appropriate foundational Determines how workplace learning and performance competencies and unique technical/professional skills and improvement can best be leveraged to achieve long-term knowledge. An individual may have expertise in one or more business success and add value to meet organizational needs; of the following specialty areas (listed alphabetically here): leads in the planning and implementation of learning and per- formance improvement strategies that support the organiza- Career Planning and Talent Management tion strategic direction and that are based on an analysis of Coaching the effectiveness of existing learning and performance Delivering Training improvement strategies. Designing Learning Facilitating Organizational Change Improving Human Performance Business Partner Managing Organizational Knowledge Applies business and industry knowledge to partner with the Managing the Learning Function client in identifying workplace performance-improvement Measuring and Evaluating. opportunities; evaluates possible solutions and recommends solutions that will have a positive impact on performance; gains Designing Learning client agreement and commitment to the proposed solutions and collaboratively develops an overall implementation strat- Designing, creating, and developing learning interventions to egy that includes evaluating impact on business performance; meet needs; analyzing and selecting the most appropriate

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84 strategy, methodologies; and technologies to maximize the Managing the Learning Function learning experience and impact. Providing leadership in developing human capital to execute Please note: This information is based in part on the IBSTPI the organization's strategy; and planning, organizing, moni- (International Board of Standards for Training, Performance, toring, and adjusting activities associated with the adminis- and Instruction) competency study for instructional design tration of workplace learning and performance. competencies: The Standards [R. Richey, D.C. Fields, and M. Foxon, with R.C. Roberts, T. Spannaus, and J.M. Spector Coaching (2001)]. Using an interactive process to help individuals and organi- Improving Human Performance zations develop more rapidly and produce more satisfying results; and improving others' ability to set goals, take action, Applying a systematic process of discovering and analyz- make better decisions, and make full use of their natural ing human performance gaps, planning for future improve- strengths. ments in human performance, designing and developing cost-effective and ethically justifiable solutions to close Please note: This information is based on the ICF (Interna- performance gaps, partnering with the customer when tional Coach Federation) Credentialing Process Examina- identifying the opportunity and the solution, implementing tion. the solution, monitoring the change, and evaluating the results. Managing Organizational Knowledge Please note: This information is based in part on ASTD Mod- Serving as a catalyst and visionary for knowledge sharing; els for Human Performance Improvement (Rothwell 1996 developing and championing a plan for transforming the and 2000) organization into a knowledge-creating and knowledge- sharing entity; and initiating, driving, and integrating the Delivering Training organization's knowledge management efforts. Delivering learning solutions (e.g., courses and guided expe- rience) in a manner that both engages the learner and pro- Career Planning and Talent Management duces desired outcomes, managing and responding to learner Ensuring that employees have the right skills to meet the needs, and ensuring that the learning solution is made avail- strategic challenges of the organization; ensuring the align- able or delivered in a timely and effective manner. ment of individual career planning and organization talent management processes to achieve an optimal match between Measuring and Evaluating individual and organizational needs; and promoting individ- ual growth and organizational renewal. Gathering data to answer specific questions regarding the value or impact of learning and performance solutions, focusing on the impact of individual programs and creating Competencies overall measures of system effectiveness, and leveraging Competencies are clusters of skills, knowledge, abilities, and findings to increase effectiveness and provide recommenda- behaviors required for job success. Managers need to know tions for change. about competencies to make appropriate personnel decisions and guide employees' performance. Facilitating Organizational Change Employees need to know about competencies because they Leading, managing, and facilitating change within provide a road map of how to succeed on the job. The study organizations. identified the following set of competencies--presented here in alphabetical order--that are considered important and Please note: This information is based in part on the 20th edi- necessary for the majority of individuals in the workplace tion of the Organization Change and Development Compe- learning and performance profession: tency Effort. Contributors include ODN (Organization Development Network), ODI (Organization Development Analyzing Needs and Proposing Solutions Institute), the Academy of Management Directors of OD uni- Applying Business Acumen versity programs, Twin Cities ASTD Chapter, and more than Building Trust 3,000 individuals from around the world. R. Sullivan, W.J. Communicating Effectively Rothwell, and C. Worley coordinated the ongoing research. Demonstrating Adaptability

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85 Driving Results Leads by Example Influencing Stakeholders Leveraging Diversity Serves as a role model for the organization's values, takes Modeling Personal Development responsibility for delivering on commitments, gives proper Networking and Partnering credit to others, and acknowledges own mistakes rather than Planning and Implementing Assignments blaming others. Thinking Strategically. These competencies are grouped into clusters (Business/ Treats People Fairly Management, Interpersonal, and Personal) to facilitate under- standing. The competencies are listed alphabetically under Treats all stakeholders with dignity, respect, and fairness; each cluster. listens to others without prejudging; objectively considers others' ideas and opinions, even when they conflict with Business/Management Competencies prescribed policies, procedures, or commonly held beliefs; champions the perspectives of different partners even in Analyzing Needs and Proposing Solutions the face of resistance; and engages in effective conflict Applying Business Acumen resolution. Driving Results Planning and Implementing Assignments Thinking Strategically. Ensures Compliance with Legal, Ethical, and Regulatory Requirements Interpersonal Competencies Ensures that processes and results comply with relevant legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements; and monitors Building Trust compliance and creates reports if needed. Communicating Effectively Influencing Stakeholders Leveraging Diversity Communicating Effectively Networking and Partnering. Expressing thoughts, feelings, and ideas in a clear, concise, Personal Competencies and compelling manner in both individual and group situa- tions; actively listening to others; adjusting style to capture Demonstrating Adaptability the attention of the audience; developing and deploying Modeling Personal Development. targeted communication strategies that inform and build support. Interpersonal Competencies Influencing Stakeholders BUILDING TRUST Selling the value of learning or the recommended solution as Interacting with others in a way that gives them confidence a way of improving organizational performance; and gaining in one's intentions and those of the organization. commitment to solutions that will improve individual, team, and organizational performance. Key Actions Leveraging Diversity Operates with Integrity Appreciating and leveraging the capabilities, insights, and Demonstrates honesty and behaves according to ethical prin- ideas of all individuals; working effectively with individuals ciples; ensures that words and actions are consistent; walks having diverse styles, abilities, motivations, and back- the talk; and behaves dependably across situations. grounds (including cultural differences). Discloses Position Networking and Partnering Shares thoughts, feelings, and rationale so that others Developing and using a network of collaborative relation- understand positions and policies. Maintains confidential- ships with internal and external contacts to leverage the ity; keeps private or sensitive information about others con- workplace learning and performance strategy in a way that fidential. facilitates the accomplishment of business results.

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86 BUSINESS/MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES decisions using a broad range of knowledge that extends beyond the limitations of the organization and its immediate Analyzing Needs and Proposing Solutions needs. Identifying and understanding business issues and client needs, problems, and opportunities; comparing data from different sources to draw conclusions; using effective Proposes Solution(s) approaches for choosing a course of action or developing Recommends a plan or process for making changes; appropriate solutions; and taking action that is consistent and clearly explains rationale for the recommended with available facts, constraints, and probable consequences. solution and how it will address the performance gap or opportunity. Key Actions Gathers Information About Client Needs Applying Business Acumen Collects information to better understand client needs, issues, Understanding the organization business model and finan- problems, and opportunities; reviews organizational informa- cial goals; utilizing economic, financial, and organiza- tion and human performance outcomes; studies organiza- tional data to build and document the business case for tional systems to better understand the factors affecting per- investing in workplace learning and performance solu- formance; integrates information from a variety of sources; tions; and using business terminology when communicat- and asks internal and external partners for input and insight. ing with others. Diagnoses Learning and Performance Issues Driving Results Uses research methods to isolate the causes of human learn- Identifying opportunities for improvement and setting well- ing and performance problems; proposes theories to under- defined goals related to learning and performance solutions; stand and explain the factors affecting performance; detects orchestrating efforts and measuring progress; and striving to trends, associations, and causeeffect relationships. achieve goals and produce exceptional results. Generates Multiple Alternatives Planning and Implementing Assignments Gathers information about best practices; thinks expansively Developing action plans, obtaining resources, and complet- and brainstorms multiple approaches; generates relevant ing assignments in a timely manner to ensure that workplace options for addressing problems and opportunities and learning and performance goals are achieved. achieving desired outcomes; and maintains a database or bank of possible solutions and their effectiveness. Thinking Strategically Searches for Innovative Solutions Understanding internal and external factors that impact learning and performance in organizations; keeping abreast Challenges paradigms and looks for innovative alternatives; of trends and anticipating opportunities to add value to the and draws upon diverse sources for ideas and inspiration in business; and operating from a systems perspective in devel- creative problem-solving activities. oping learning and performance strategies and building alignment with business strategies. Chooses Appropriate Solution(s) PERSONAL COMPETENCIES Formulates clear decision criteria; evaluates options by con- sidering implications, risks, feasibility, and consequences on Demonstrating Adaptability the client system and on other parts of the organization; and Maintaining effectiveness when experiencing major prioritizes and chooses an effective option. changes in work tasks, the work environment, or conditions affecting the organization (e.g., economic, political, cul- Recognizes Impact tural, or technological); remaining open to new people, thoughts, and approaches; and adjusting effectively to work Considers the implications of learning and performance deci- within new work structures, processes, requirements, or sions, solutions, and strategies in other contexts; and makes cultures.

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87 Key Actions Adjusts Behavior Seeks to Understand Changes Quickly modifies behavior to deal effectively with changes in the work environment; acquires new knowledge or skills Seeks to understand changes in work tasks, situations, and to deal with the change; does not persist with ineffective environment as well as the logic or basis for change; and behaviors; and shows resiliency and maintains effectiveness actively seeks information about new work situations and even in the face of uncertainty or ambiguity. withholds judgment. Adapts to Handle Implementation Challenges Approaches Change Positively Effectively handles global, cultural, economic, social, and polit- ical challenges to the effective implementation of learning and Treats changes as opportunities for learning or growth; performance solutions; and works to overcome barriers and deal focuses on the beneficial aspects of change; and speaks pos- constructively with nontraditional or challenging situations. itively and advocates the change when it helps promote orga- nizational goals and strategy. Modeling Personal Development Actively identifying new areas for ones' own personal learning; Remains Open to Different Ideas and Approaches regularly creating and taking advantage of learning opportuni- ties; and applying newly gained knowledge and skill on the job. Thinks expansively by remaining open to different lines of thought and approaches; and readily tries new and different http://www.astd.org/astd/Research/competency_study/com- approaches in changing situations. petency_doc.htm